Applies to openSUSE Leap 42.2

9 Installing or Removing Software

Abstract

Use YaST's software management module to search for software components you want to add or remove. YaST resolves all dependencies for you. To install packages not shipped with the installation media, add additional software repositories to your setup and let YaST manage them. Keep your system up-to-date by managing software updates with the update applet.

Change the software collection of your system with the YaST Software Manager. This YaST module is available in two flavors: a graphical variant for X Window and a text-based variant to be used on the command line. The graphical flavor is described here—for details on the text-based YaST, see Book “Reference”, Chapter 1 “YaST in Text Mode”.

Note
Note: Confirmation and Review of Changes

When installing, updating or removing packages, any changes in the Software Manager are not applied immediately but only after confirming them with Accept or Apply respectively. YaST maintains a list with all actions, allowing you to review and modify your changes before applying them to the system.

9.1 Definition of Terms

Repository

A local or remote directory containing packages, plus additional information about these packages (package metadata).

(Repository) Alias/Repository Name

A short name for a repository (called Alias within Zypper and Repository Name within YaST). It can be chosen by the user when adding a repository and must be unique.

Repository Description Files

Each repository provides files describing content of the repository (package names, versions, etc.). These repository description files are downloaded to a local cache that is used by YaST.

Product

Represents a whole product, for example openSUSE® Leap.

Pattern

A pattern is an installable group of packages dedicated to a certain purpose. For example, the Laptop pattern contains all packages that are needed in a mobile computing environment. Patterns define package dependencies (such as required or recommended packages) and come with a preselection of packages marked for installation. This ensures that the most important packages needed for a certain purpose are available on your system after installation of the pattern. However, not necessarily all packages in a pattern are preselected for installation and you can manually select or deselect packages within a pattern according to your needs and wishes.

Package

A package is a compressed file in rpm format that contains the files for a particular program.

Patch

A patch consists of one or more packages and may be applied by means of delta RPMs. It may also introduce dependencies to packages that are not installed yet.

Resolvable

A generic term for product, pattern, package or patch. The most commonly used type of resolvable is a package or a patch.

Delta RPM

A delta RPM consists only of the binary diff between two defined versions of a package, and therefore has the smallest download size. Before being installed, the full RPM package is rebuilt on the local machine.

Package Dependencies

Certain packages are dependent on other packages, such as shared libraries. In other terms, a package may require other packages—if the required packages are not available, the package cannot be installed. In addition to dependencies (package requirements) that must be fulfilled, some packages recommend other packages. These recommended packages are only installed if they are actually available, otherwise they are ignored and the package recommending them is installed nevertheless.

9.2 Using the YaST Software Manager

Start the software manager from the YaST Control Center by choosing Software › Software Management.

9.2.1 Views for Searching Packages or Patterns

The YaST software manager can install packages or patterns from all currently enabled repositories. It offers different views and filters to make it easier to find the software you are searching for. The Search view is the default view of the window. To change view, click View and select one of the following entries from the drop-down box. The selected view opens in a new tab.

Patterns

Lists all patterns available for installation on your system.

Package Groups

Lists all packages sorted by groups such as Graphics, Programming, or Security.

RPM Groups

Lists all packages sorted by functionality with groups and subgroups. For example Networking › Email › Clients.

Languages

A filter to list all packages needed to add a new system language.

Repositories

A filter to list packages by repository. To select more than one repository, hold the Ctrl key while clicking repository names. The pseudo repository @System lists all packages currently installed.

Search

Lets you search for a package according to certain criteria. Enter a search term and press Enter. Refine your search by specifying where to Search In and by changing the Search Mode. For example, if you do not know the package name but only the name of the application that you are searching for, try including the package Description in the search process.

Installation Summary

If you have already selected packages for installation, update or removal, this view shows the changes that will be applied to your system when you click Accept. To filter for packages with a certain status in this view, activate or deactivate the respective check boxes. Press ShiftF1 for details on the status flags.

Tip
Tip: Finding Packages Not Belonging to an Active Repository

To list all packages that do not belong to an active repository, choose View › Repositories › @System and then choose Secondary Filter › Unmaintained Packages. This is useful, for example, if you have deleted a repository and want to make sure no packages from that repository remain installed.

9.2.2 Installing and Removing Packages or Patterns

Certain packages are dependent on other packages, such as shared libraries. On the other hand, some packages cannot coexist with others on the system. If possible, YaST automatically resolves these dependencies or conflicts. If your choice results in a dependency conflict that cannot be automatically solved, you need to solve it manually as described in Section 9.2.4, “Checking Software Dependencies”.

Note
Note: Removal of Packages

When removing any packages, by default YaST only removes the selected packages. If you want YaST to also remove any other packages that become unneeded after removal of the specified package, select Options › Cleanup when deleting packages from the main menu.

  1. Search for packages as described in Section 9.2.1, “Views for Searching Packages or Patterns”.

  2. The packages found are listed in the right pane. To install a package or remove it, right-click it and choose Install or Delete. If the relevant option is not available, check the package status indicated by the symbol in front of the package name—press ShiftF1 for help.

    Tip
    Tip: Applying an Action to All Packages Listed

    To apply an action to all packages listed in the right pane, go to the main menu and choose an action from Package › All in This List.

  3. To install a pattern, right-click the pattern name and choose Install.

  4. It is not possible to remove a pattern per se. Instead, select the packages of a pattern you want to remove and mark them for removal.

  5. To select more packages, repeat the steps mentioned above.

  6. Before applying your changes, you can review or modify them by clicking View › Installation Summary. By default, all packages that will change status, are listed.

  7. To revert the status for a package, right-click the package and select one of the following entries: Keep if the package was scheduled to be deleted or updated, or Do Not Install if it was scheduled for installation. To abandon all changes and quit the Software Manager, click Cancel and Abandon.

  8. When you are finished, click Accept to apply your changes.

  9. In case YaST found dependencies on other packages, a list of packages that have additionally been chosen for installation, update or removal is presented. Click Continue to accept them.

    After all selected packages are installed, updated or removed, the YaST Software Manager automatically terminates.

Note
Note: Installing Source Packages

Installing source packages with YaST Software Manager is not possible at the moment. Use the command line tool zypper for this purpose. For more information, see Book “Reference”, Chapter 2 “Managing Software with Command Line Tools”, Section 2.1.2.5 “Installing or Downloading Source Packages”.

9.2.3 Updating Packages

Instead of updating individual packages, you can also update all installed packages or all packages from a certain repository. When mass updating packages, the following aspects are generally considered:

  • priorities of the repositories that provide the package,

  • architecture of the package (for example, AMD64/Intel 64),

  • version number of the package,

  • package vendor.

Which of the aspects has the highest importance for choosing the update candidates depends on the respective update option you choose.

  1. To update all installed packages to the latest version, choose Package › All Packages › Update if Newer Version Available from the main menu.

    All repositories are checked for possible update candidates, using the following policy: YaST first tries to restrict the search to packages with the same architecture and vendor like the installed one. If the search is positive, the best update candidate from those is selected according to the process below. However, if no comparable package of the same vendor can be found, the search is expanded to all packages with the same architecture. If still no comparable package can be found, all packages are considered and the best update candidate is selected according to the following criteria:

    1. Repository priority: Prefer the package from the repository with the highest priority.

    2. If more than one package results from this selection, choose the one with the best architecture (best choice: matching the architecture of the installed one).

    If the resulting package has a higher version number than the installed one, the installed package will be updated and replaced with the selected update candidate.

    This option tries to avoid changes in architecture and vendor for the installed packages, but under certain circumstances, they are tolerated.

    Note
    Note: Update Unconditionally

    If you choose Package › All Packages › Update Unconditionally instead, the same criteria apply but any candidate package found is installed unconditionally. Thus, choosing this option might actually lead to downgrading some packages.

  2. To make sure that the packages for a mass update derive from a certain repository:

    1. Choose the repository from which to update as described in Section 9.2.1, “Views for Searching Packages or Patterns” .

    2. On the right hand side of the window, click Switch system packages to the versions in this repository. This explicitly allows YaST to change the package vendor when replacing the packages.

      When you proceed with Accept, all installed packages will be replaced by packages deriving from this repository, if available. This may lead to changes in vendor and architecture and even to downgrading some packages.

    3. To refrain from this, click Cancel switching system packages to the versions in this repository. Note that you can only cancel this until you press the Accept button.

  3. Before applying your changes, you can review or modify them by clicking View › Installation Summary. By default, all packages that will change status, are listed.

  4. If all options are set according to your wishes, confirm your changes with Accept to start the mass update.

9.2.4 Checking Software Dependencies

Most packages are dependent on other packages. If a package, for example, uses a shared library, it is dependent on the package providing this library. On the other hand some packages cannot coexist with each other, causing a conflict (for example, you can only install one mail transfer agent: sendmail or postfix). When installing or removing software, the Software Manager makes sure no dependencies or conflicts remain unsolved to ensure system integrity.

In case there exists only one solution to resolve a dependency or a conflict, it is resolved automatically. Multiple solutions always cause a conflict which needs to be resolved manually. If solving a conflict involves a vendor or architecture change, it also needs to be solved manually. When clicking Accept to apply any changes in the Software Manager, you get an overview of all actions triggered by the automatic resolver which you need to confirm.

By default, dependencies are automatically checked. A check is performed every time you change a package status (for example, by marking a package for installation or removal). This is generally useful, but can become exhausting when manually resolving a dependency conflict. To disable this function, go to the main menu and deactivate Dependencies › Autocheck. Manually perform a dependency check with Dependencies › Check Now. A consistency check is always performed when you confirm your selection with Accept.

To review a package's dependencies, right-click it and choose Show Solver Information. A map showing the dependencies opens. Packages that are already installed are displayed in a green frame.

Note
Note: Manually Solving Package Conflicts

Unless you are very experienced, follow the suggestions YaST makes when handling package conflicts, otherwise you may not be able to resolve them. Keep in mind that every change you make, potentially triggers other conflicts, so you can easily end up with a steadily increasing number of conflicts. In case this happens, Cancel the Software Manager, Abandon all your changes and start again.

Conflict Management of the Software Manager
Figure 9.1: Conflict Management of the Software Manager

9.2.4.1 Handling of Package Recommendations

In addition to the hard dependencies required to run a program (for example a certain library), a package can also have weak dependencies, that add for example extra functionality or translations. These weak dependencies are called package recommendations.

The way package recommendations are handled has slightly changed starting with openSUSE Leap 12 SP1. Nothing has changed when installing a new package—recommended packages are still installed by default.

Prior to SLES 12 SP1, missing recommendations for already installed packages were installed automatically. Now these packages will no longer be installed automatically. To switch to the old default, set PKGMGR_REEVALUATE_RECOMMENDED="yes" in /etc/sysconfig/yast2. To install all missing recommendations for already installed packages, start YaST › Software Manager and choose Extras › Install All Matching Recommended Packages.

To disable the installation of recommended packages when installing new packages, deactivate Dependencies › Install Recommended Packages in the YaST Software Manager. If using the command line tool Zypper to install packages, use the option --no-recommends.

9.3 Managing Software Repositories and Services

If you want to install third-party software, add additional software repositories to your system. By default, the product repositories such as openSUSE Leap-DVD 42.2 and a matching update repository are automatically configured. Depending on the initially selected product, an additional repository containing translations, dictionaries, etc. might also be configured.

To manage repositories, start YaST and select Software › Software Repositories. The Configured Software Repositories dialog opens. Here, you can also manage subscriptions to so-called Services by changing the View at the right corner of the dialog to All Services. A Service in this context is a Repository Index Service (RIS) that can offer one or more software repositories. Such a Service can be changed dynamically by its administrator or vendor.

Each repository provides files describing content of the repository (package names, versions, etc.). These repository description files are downloaded to a local cache that is used by YaST. To ensure their integrity, software repositories can be signed with the GPG Key of the repository maintainer. Whenever you add a new repository, YaST offers the ability to import its key.

Warning
Warning: Trusting External Software Sources

Before adding external software repositories to your list of repositories, make sure this repository can be trusted. SUSE is not responsible for any problems arising from software installed from third-party software repositories.

9.3.1 Adding Software Repositories

You can either add repositories from DVD/CD, removable mass storage devices (such as flash disks), a local directory, an ISO image or a network source.

To add repositories from the Configured Software Repositories dialog in YaST proceed as follows:

  1. Click Add.

  2. Select one of the options listed in the dialog:

    Adding A Software Repository
    Figure 9.2: Adding A Software Repository
    • To scan your network for installation servers announcing their services via SLP, select Scan Using SLP and click Next.

    • To add a repository from a removable medium, choose the relevant option and insert the medium or connect the USB device to the machine, respectively. Click Next to start the installation.

    • For the majority of repositories, you will be asked to specify the path (or URL) to the media after selecting the respective option and clicking Next. Specifying a Repository Name is optional. If none is specified, YaST will use the product name or the URL as repository name.

    The option Download Repository Description Files is activated by default. If you deactivate the option, YaST will automatically download the files later, if needed.

  3. Depending on the repository you have added, you may be asked if you want to import the GPG key with which it is signed or asked to agree to a license.

    After confirming these messages, YaST will download and parse the metadata. It will add the repository to the list of Configured Repositories.

  4. If needed, adjust the repository Properties as described in Section 9.3.2, “Managing Repository Properties”.

  5. Confirm your changes with OK to close the configuration dialog.

  6. After having successfully added the repository, the software manager starts and you can install packages from this repository. For details, refer to Chapter 9, Installing or Removing Software.

9.3.2 Managing Repository Properties

The Configured Software Repositories overview of the Software Repositories lets you change the following repository properties:

Status

The repository status can either be Enabled or Disabled. You can only install packages from repositories that are enabled. To turn a repository off temporarily, select it and deactivate Enable. You can also double-click a repository name to toggle its status. If you want to remove a repository completely, click Delete.

Refresh

When refreshing a repository, its content description (package names, versions, etc.) is downloaded to a local cache that is used by YaST. It is sufficient to do this once for static repositories such as CDs or DVDs, whereas repositories whose content changes often should be refreshed frequently. The easiest way to keep a repository's cache up-to-date is to choose Automatically Refresh. To do a manual refresh click Refresh and select one of the options.

Keep Downloaded Packages

Packages from remote repositories are downloaded before being installed. By default, they are deleted upon a successful installation. Activating Keep Downloaded Packages prevents the deletion of downloaded packages. The download location is configured in /etc/zypp/zypp.conf, by default it is /var/cache/zypp/packages.

Priority

The Priority of a repository is a value between 1 and 200, with 1 being the highest priority and 200 the lowest priority. Any new repositories that are added with YaST get a priority of 99 by default. If you do not care about a priority value for a certain repository, you can also set the value to 0 to apply the default priority to that repository (99). If a package is available in more than one repository, then the repository with the highest priority takes precedence. This is useful if you want to avoid downloading packages unnecessarily from the Internet by giving a local repository (for example, a DVD) a higher priority.

Important
Important: Priority Compared to Version

The repository with the highest priority takes precedence in any case. Therefore, make sure that the update repository always has the highest priority, otherwise you might install an outdated version that will not be updated until the next online update.

Name and URL

To change a repository name or its URL, select it from the list with a single-click and then click Edit.

9.3.3 Managing Repository Keys

To ensure their integrity, software repositories can be signed with the GPG Key of the repository maintainer. Whenever you add a new repository, YaST offers to import its key. Verify it as you would do with any other GPG key and make sure it does not change. If you detect a key change, something might be wrong with the repository. Disable the repository as an installation source until you know the cause of the key change.

To manage all imported keys, click GPG Keys in the Configured Software Repositories dialog. Select an entry with the mouse to show the key properties at the bottom of the window. Add, Edit or Delete keys with a click on the respective buttons.

9.4 Keeping the System Up-to-date

SUSE offers a continuous stream of software security patches for your product. They can be installed using the YaST Online Update module. It also offers advanced features to customize the patch installation.

The GNOME desktop also provides a tool for installing patches and for installing package updates of packages that are already installed. In contrast to a Patch, a package update is only related to one package and provides a newer version of a package. The GNOME tool lets you install both patches and package updates with a few clicks as described in Section 9.4.2, “Installing Patches and Package Updates”.

9.4.1 The GNOME Software Updater

Whenever new patches or package updates are available, GNOME shows a notification about this at the bottom of the desktop (or on the locked screen).

Update Notification on GNOME Lock Screen
Figure 9.3: Update Notification on GNOME Lock Screen

9.4.2 Installing Patches and Package Updates

Whenever new patches or package updates are available, GNOME shows a notification about this at the bottom of the desktop (or on the locked screen).

Update Notification on GNOME Desktop
Figure 9.4: Update Notification on GNOME Desktop
  1. To install the patches and updates, click Install updates in the notification message. This opens the GNOME update viewer. Alternatively, open the update viewer from Applications › System Tools › Software Update or press AltF2 and enter gpk-update-viewer.

  2. All Security Updates and Important Updates are preselected. It is strongly recommended to install these patches. Other Updates can be manually selected by activating the respective check boxes. Get detailed information on a patch or package update by clicking its title.

  3. Click Install Updates to start the installation. You will be prompted for the root password.

  4. Enter the root password in the authentication dialog and proceed.

GNOME Update Viewer
Figure 9.5: GNOME Update Viewer

9.4.3 Configuring the GNOME Software Updater

To define the appearance of the notification (where it appears on the screen, whether to display it on the lock screen), select Applications › System Settings › Notification › Software Update and change the settings according to your wishes.

To configure how often to check for updates or to activate or deactivate repositories, select Applications › System Tools › Settings › Software Settings. The tabs of the configuration dialog let you modify the following settings:

Update Settings
Check for Updates

Choose how often a check for updates is performed: Hourly, Daily, Weekly, or Never.

Check for Major Upgrades

Choose how often a check for major upgrades is performed: Daily, Weekly, or Never.

Check for updates when using mobile broadband

This configuration option is only available on mobile computers. Turned off by default.

Check for updates on battery power

This configuration option is only available on mobile computers. Turned off by default.

Software Sources
Repositories

Lists the repositories that will be checked for available patches and package updates. You can enable or disable certain repositories.

Important
Important: Keep Update Repository Enabled

To make sure that you are notified about any patches that are security-relevant, keep the Updates repository for your product enabled.

More options are configurable using gconf-editor: apps › gnome-packagekit.

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