Applies to openSUSE Leap 42.3

13 Basic Networking

Abstract

Linux offers the necessary networking tools and features for integration into all types of network structures. Network access using a network card can be configured with YaST. Manual configuration is also possible. In this chapter only the fundamental mechanisms and the relevant network configuration files are covered.

Linux and other Unix operating systems use the TCP/IP protocol. It is not a single network protocol, but a family of network protocols that offer various services. The protocols listed in Several Protocols in the TCP/IP Protocol Family, are provided for exchanging data between two machines via TCP/IP. Networks combined by TCP/IP, comprising a worldwide network, are also called the Internet.

RFC stands for Request for Comments. RFCs are documents that describe various Internet protocols and implementation procedures for the operating system and its applications. The RFC documents describe the setup of Internet protocols. For more information about RFCs, see http://www.ietf.org/rfc.html.

Several Protocols in the TCP/IP Protocol Family
TCP

Transmission Control Protocol: a connection-oriented secure protocol. The data to transmit is first sent by the application as a stream of data and converted into the appropriate format by the operating system. The data arrives at the respective application on the destination host in the original data stream format it was initially sent. TCP determines whether any data has been lost or jumbled during the transmission. TCP is implemented wherever the data sequence matters.

UDP

User Datagram Protocol: a connectionless, insecure protocol. The data to transmit is sent in the form of packets generated by the application. The order in which the data arrives at the recipient is not guaranteed and data loss is possible. UDP is suitable for record-oriented applications. It features a smaller latency period than TCP.

ICMP

Internet Control Message Protocol: Essentially, this is not a protocol for the end user, but a special control protocol that issues error reports and can control the behavior of machines participating in TCP/IP data transfer. In addition, it provides a special echo mode that can be viewed using the program ping.

IGMP

Internet Group Management Protocol: This protocol controls machine behavior when implementing IP multicast.

As shown in Figure 13.1, “Simplified Layer Model for TCP/IP”, data exchange takes place in different layers. The actual network layer is the insecure data transfer via IP (Internet protocol). On top of IP, TCP (transmission control protocol) guarantees, to a certain extent, security of the data transfer. The IP layer is supported by the underlying hardware-dependent protocol, such as Ethernet.

Simplified Layer Model for TCP/IP
Figure 13.1: Simplified Layer Model for TCP/IP

The diagram provides one or two examples for each layer. The layers are ordered according to abstraction levels. The lowest layer is very close to the hardware. The uppermost layer, however, is almost a complete abstraction from the hardware. Every layer has its own special function. The special functions of each layer are mostly implicit in their description. The data link and physical layers represent the physical network used, such as Ethernet.

Almost all hardware protocols work on a packet-oriented basis. The data to transmit is collected into packets (it cannot be sent all at once). The maximum size of a TCP/IP packet is approximately 64 KB. Packets are normally quite smaller, as the network hardware can be a limiting factor. The maximum size of a data packet on an Ethernet is about fifteen hundred bytes. The size of a TCP/IP packet is limited to this amount when the data is sent over an Ethernet. If more data is transferred, more data packets need to be sent by the operating system.

For the layers to serve their designated functions, additional information regarding each layer must be saved in the data packet. This takes place in the header of the packet. Every layer attaches a small block of data, called the protocol header, to the front of each emerging packet. A sample TCP/IP data packet traveling over an Ethernet cable is illustrated in Figure 13.2, “TCP/IP Ethernet Packet”. The proof sum is located at the end of the packet, not at the beginning. This simplifies things for the network hardware.

TCP/IP Ethernet Packet
Figure 13.2: TCP/IP Ethernet Packet

When an application sends data over the network, the data passes through each layer, all implemented in the Linux kernel except the physical layer. Each layer is responsible for preparing the data so it can be passed to the next layer. The lowest layer is ultimately responsible for sending the data. The entire procedure is reversed when data is received. Like the layers of an onion, in each layer the protocol headers are removed from the transported data. Finally, the transport layer is responsible for making the data available for use by the applications at the destination. In this manner, one layer only communicates with the layer directly above or below it. For applications, it is irrelevant whether data is transmitted via a 100 Mbit/s FDDI network or via a 56-Kbit/s modem line. Likewise, it is irrelevant for the data line which kind of data is transmitted, as long as packets are in the correct format.

13.1 IP Addresses and Routing

The discussion in this section is limited to IPv4 networks. For information about IPv6 protocol, the successor to IPv4, refer to Section 13.2, “IPv6—The Next Generation Internet”.

13.1.1 IP Addresses

Every computer on the Internet has a unique 32-bit address. These 32 bits (or 4 bytes) are normally written as illustrated in the second row in Example 13.1, “Writing IP Addresses”.

Example 13.1: Writing IP Addresses
IP Address (binary):  11000000 10101000 00000000 00010100
IP Address (decimal):      192.     168.       0.      20

In decimal form, the four bytes are written in the decimal number system, separated by periods. The IP address is assigned to a host or a network interface. It can be used only once throughout the world. There are exceptions to this rule, but these are not relevant to the following passages.

The points in IP addresses indicate the hierarchical system. Until the 1990s, IP addresses were strictly categorized in classes. However, this system proved too inflexible and was discontinued. Now, classless routing (CIDR, classless interdomain routing) is used.

13.1.2 Netmasks and Routing

Netmasks are used to define the address range of a subnet. If two hosts are in the same subnet, they can reach each other directly. If they are not in the same subnet, they need the address of a gateway that handles all the traffic for the subnet. To check if two IP addresses are in the same subnet, simply AND both addresses with the netmask. If the result is identical, both IP addresses are in the same local network. If there are differences, the remote IP address, and thus the remote interface, can only be reached over a gateway.

To understand how the netmask works, look at Example 13.2, “Linking IP Addresses to the Netmask”. The netmask consists of 32 bits that identify how much of an IP address belongs to the network. All those bits that are 1 mark the corresponding bit in the IP address as belonging to the network. All bits that are 0 mark bits inside the subnet. This means that the more bits are 1, the smaller the subnet is. Because the netmask always consists of several successive 1 bits, it is also possible to count the number of bits in the netmask. In Example 13.2, “Linking IP Addresses to the Netmask” the first net with 24 bits could also be written as 192.168.0.0/24.

Example 13.2: Linking IP Addresses to the Netmask
IP address (192.168.0.20):  11000000 10101000 00000000 00010100
Netmask   (255.255.255.0):  11111111 11111111 11111111 00000000
---------------------------------------------------------------
Result of the link:         11000000 10101000 00000000 00000000
In the decimal system:           192.     168.       0.       0

IP address (213.95.15.200): 11010101 10111111 00001111 11001000
Netmask    (255.255.255.0): 11111111 11111111 11111111 00000000
---------------------------------------------------------------
Result of the link:         11010101 10111111 00001111 00000000
In the decimal system:           213.      95.      15.       0

To give another example: all machines connected with the same Ethernet cable are usually located in the same subnet and are directly accessible. Even when the subnet is physically divided by switches or bridges, these hosts can still be reached directly.

IP addresses outside the local subnet can only be reached if a gateway is configured for the target network. In the most common case, there is only one gateway that handles all traffic that is external. However, it is also possible to configure several gateways for different subnets.

If a gateway has been configured, all external IP packets are sent to the appropriate gateway. This gateway then attempts to forward the packets in the same manner—from host to host—until it reaches the destination host or the packet's TTL (time to live) expires.

Specific Addresses
Base Network Address

This is the netmask AND any address in the network, as shown in Example 13.2, “Linking IP Addresses to the Netmask” under Result. This address cannot be assigned to any hosts.

Broadcast Address

This could be paraphrased as: Access all hosts in this subnet. To generate this, the netmask is inverted in binary form and linked to the base network address with a logical OR. The above example therefore results in 192.168.0.255. This address cannot be assigned to any hosts.

Local Host

The address 127.0.0.1 is assigned to the loopback device on each host. A connection can be set up to your own machine with this address and with all addresses from the complete 127.0.0.0/8 loopback network as defined with IPv4. With IPv6 there is only one loopback address (::1).

Because IP addresses must be unique all over the world, you cannot select random addresses. There are three address domains to use if you want to set up a private IP-based network. These cannot get any connection from the rest of the Internet, because they cannot be transmitted over the Internet. These address domains are specified in RFC 1597 and listed in Table 13.1, “Private IP Address Domains”.

Table 13.1: Private IP Address Domains

Network/Netmask

Domain

10.0.0.0/255.0.0.0

10.x.x.x

172.16.0.0/255.240.0.0

172.16.x.x172.31.x.x

192.168.0.0/255.255.0.0

192.168.x.x

13.2 IPv6—The Next Generation Internet

Because of the emergence of the WWW (World Wide Web), the Internet has experienced explosive growth, with an increasing number of computers communicating via TCP/IP in the past fifteen years. Since Tim Berners-Lee at CERN (http://public.web.cern.ch) invented the WWW in 1990, the number of Internet hosts has grown from a few thousand to about a hundred million.

As mentioned, an IPv4 address consists of only 32 bits. Also, quite a few IP addresses are lost—they cannot be used because of the way in which networks are organized. The number of addresses available in your subnet is two to the power of the number of bits, minus two. A subnet has, for example, 2, 6, or 14 addresses available. To connect 128 hosts to the Internet, for example, you need a subnet with 256 IP addresses, from which only 254 are usable, because two IP addresses are needed for the structure of the subnet itself: the broadcast and the base network address.

Under the current IPv4 protocol, DHCP or NAT (network address translation) are the typical mechanisms used to circumvent the potential address shortage. Combined with the convention to keep private and public address spaces separate, these methods can certainly mitigate the shortage. The problem with them lies in their configuration, which is a chore to set up and a burden to maintain. To set up a host in an IPv4 network, you need several address items, such as the host's own IP address, the subnetmask, the gateway address and maybe a name server address. All these items need to be known and cannot be derived from somewhere else.

With IPv6, both the address shortage and the complicated configuration should be a thing of the past. The following sections tell more about the improvements and benefits brought by IPv6 and about the transition from the old protocol to the new one.

13.2.1 Advantages

The most important and most visible improvement brought by the new protocol is the enormous expansion of the available address space. An IPv6 address is made up of 128 bit values instead of the traditional 32 bits. This provides for as many as several quadrillion IP addresses.

However, IPv6 addresses are not only different from their predecessors with regard to their length. They also have a different internal structure that may contain more specific information about the systems and the networks to which they belong. More details about this are found in Section 13.2.2, “Address Types and Structure”.

The following is a list of other advantages of the new protocol:

Autoconfiguration

IPv6 makes the network plug and play capable, which means that a newly set up system integrates into the (local) network without any manual configuration. The new host uses its automatic configuration mechanism to derive its own address from the information made available by the neighboring routers, relying on a protocol called the neighbor discovery (ND) protocol. This method does not require any intervention on the administrator's part and there is no need to maintain a central server for address allocation—an additional advantage over IPv4, where automatic address allocation requires a DHCP server.

Nevertheless if a router is connected to a switch, the router should send periodic advertisements with flags telling the hosts of a network how they should interact with each other. For more information, see RFC 2462 and the radvd.conf(5) man page, and RFC 3315.

Mobility

IPv6 makes it possible to assign several addresses to one network interface at the same time. This allows users to access several networks easily, something that could be compared with the international roaming services offered by mobile phone companies: when you take your mobile phone abroad, the phone automatically logs in to a foreign service when it enters the corresponding area, so you can be reached under the same number everywhere and can place an outgoing call, as you would in your home area.

Secure Communication

With IPv4, network security is an add-on function. IPv6 includes IPsec as one of its core features, allowing systems to communicate over a secure tunnel to avoid eavesdropping by outsiders on the Internet.

Backward Compatibility

Realistically, it would be impossible to switch the entire Internet from IPv4 to IPv6 at one time. Therefore, it is crucial that both protocols can coexist not only on the Internet, but also on one system. This is ensured by compatible addresses (IPv4 addresses can easily be translated into IPv6 addresses) and by using several tunnels. See Section 13.2.3, “Coexistence of IPv4 and IPv6”. Also, systems can rely on a dual stack IP technique to support both protocols at the same time, meaning that they have two network stacks that are completely separate, such that there is no interference between the two protocol versions.

Custom Tailored Services through Multicasting

With IPv4, some services, such as SMB, need to broadcast their packets to all hosts in the local network. IPv6 allows a much more fine-grained approach by enabling servers to address hosts through multicasting—by addressing several hosts as parts of a group (which is different from addressing all hosts through broadcasting or each host individually through unicasting). Which hosts are addressed as a group may depend on the concrete application. There are some predefined groups to address all name servers (the all name servers multicast group), for example, or all routers (the all routers multicast group).

13.2.2 Address Types and Structure

As mentioned, the current IP protocol is lacking in two important aspects: there is an increasing shortage of IP addresses and configuring the network and maintaining the routing tables is becoming a more complex and burdensome task. IPv6 solves the first problem by expanding the address space to 128 bits. The second one is countered by introducing a hierarchical address structure, combined with sophisticated techniques to allocate network addresses, and multihoming (the ability to assign several addresses to one device, giving access to several networks).

When dealing with IPv6, it is useful to know about three different types of addresses:

Unicast

Addresses of this type are associated with exactly one network interface. Packets with such an address are delivered to only one destination. Accordingly, unicast addresses are used to transfer packets to individual hosts on the local network or the Internet.

Multicast

Addresses of this type relate to a group of network interfaces. Packets with such an address are delivered to all destinations that belong to the group. Multicast addresses are mainly used by certain network services to communicate with certain groups of hosts in a well-directed manner.

Anycast

Addresses of this type are related to a group of interfaces. Packets with such an address are delivered to the member of the group that is closest to the sender, according to the principles of the underlying routing protocol. Anycast addresses are used to make it easier for hosts to find out about servers offering certain services in the given network area. All servers of the same type have the same anycast address. Whenever a host requests a service, it receives a reply from the server with the closest location, as determined by the routing protocol. If this server should fail for some reason, the protocol automatically selects the second closest server, then the third one, and so forth.

An IPv6 address is made up of eight four-digit fields, each representing 16 bits, written in hexadecimal notation. They are separated by colons (:). Any leading zero bytes within a given field may be dropped, but zeros within the field or at its end may not. Another convention is that more than four consecutive zero bytes may be collapsed into a double colon. However, only one such :: is allowed per address. This kind of shorthand notation is shown in Example 13.3, “Sample IPv6 Address”, where all three lines represent the same address.

Example 13.3: Sample IPv6 Address
fe80 : 0000 : 0000 : 0000 : 0000 : 10 : 1000 : 1a4
fe80 :    0 :    0 :    0 :    0 : 10 : 1000 : 1a4
fe80 :                           : 10 : 1000 : 1a4

Each part of an IPv6 address has a defined function. The first bytes form the prefix and specify the type of address. The center part is the network portion of the address, but it may be unused. The end of the address forms the host part. With IPv6, the netmask is defined by indicating the length of the prefix after a slash at the end of the address. An address, as shown in Example 13.4, “IPv6 Address Specifying the Prefix Length”, contains the information that the first 64 bits form the network part of the address and the last 64 form its host part. In other words, the 64 means that the netmask is filled with 64 1-bit values from the left. As with IPv4, the IP address is combined with AND with the values from the netmask to determine whether the host is located in the same subnet or in another one.

Example 13.4: IPv6 Address Specifying the Prefix Length
fe80::10:1000:1a4/64

IPv6 knows about several predefined types of prefixes. Some are shown in Various IPv6 Prefixes.

Various IPv6 Prefixes
00

IPv4 addresses and IPv4 over IPv6 compatibility addresses. These are used to maintain compatibility with IPv4. Their use still requires a router able to translate IPv6 packets into IPv4 packets. Several special addresses, such as the one for the loopback device, have this prefix as well.

2 or 3 as the first digit

Aggregatable global unicast addresses. As is the case with IPv4, an interface can be assigned to form part of a certain subnet. Currently, there are the following address spaces: 2001::/16 (production quality address space) and 2002::/16 (6to4 address space).

fe80::/10

Link-local addresses. Addresses with this prefix should not be routed and should therefore only be reachable from within the same subnet.

fec0::/10

Site-local addresses. These may be routed, but only within the network of the organization to which they belong. In effect, they are the IPv6 equivalent of the current private network address space, such as 10.x.x.x.

ff

These are multicast addresses.

A unicast address consists of three basic components:

Public Topology

The first part (which also contains one of the prefixes mentioned above) is used to route packets through the public Internet. It includes information about the company or institution that provides the Internet access.

Site Topology

The second part contains routing information about the subnet to which to deliver the packet.

Interface ID

The third part identifies the interface to which to deliver the packet. This also allows for the MAC to form part of the address. Given that the MAC is a globally unique, fixed identifier coded into the device by the hardware maker, the configuration procedure is substantially simplified. In fact, the first 64 address bits are consolidated to form the EUI-64 token, with the last 48 bits taken from the MAC, and the remaining 24 bits containing special information about the token type. This also makes it possible to assign an EUI-64 token to interfaces that do not have a MAC, such as those based on PPP.

On top of this basic structure, IPv6 distinguishes between five different types of unicast addresses:

:: (unspecified)

This address is used by the host as its source address when the interface is initialized for the first time—when the address cannot yet be determined by other means.

::1 (loopback)

The address of the loopback device.

IPv4 Compatible Addresses

The IPv6 address is formed by the IPv4 address and a prefix consisting of 96 zero bits. This type of compatibility address is used for tunneling (see Section 13.2.3, “Coexistence of IPv4 and IPv6”) to allow IPv4 and IPv6 hosts to communicate with others operating in a pure IPv4 environment.

IPv4 Addresses Mapped to IPv6

This type of address specifies a pure IPv4 address in IPv6 notation.

Local Addresses

There are two address types for local use:

link-local

This type of address can only be used in the local subnet. Packets with a source or target address of this type should not be routed to the Internet or other subnets. These addresses contain a special prefix (fe80::/10) and the interface ID of the network card, with the middle part consisting of zero bytes. Addresses of this type are used during automatic configuration to communicate with other hosts belonging to the same subnet.

site-local

Packets with this type of address may be routed to other subnets, but not to the wider Internet—they must remain inside the organization's own network. Such addresses are used for intranets and are an equivalent of the private address space defined by IPv4. They contain a special prefix (fec0::/10), the interface ID, and a 16 bit field specifying the subnet ID. Again, the rest is filled with zero bytes.

As a completely new feature introduced with IPv6, each network interface normally gets several IP addresses, with the advantage that several networks can be accessed through the same interface. One of these networks can be configured completely automatically using the MAC and a known prefix with the result that all hosts on the local network can be reached when IPv6 is enabled (using the link-local address). With the MAC forming part of it, any IP address used in the world is unique. The only variable parts of the address are those specifying the site topology and the public topology, depending on the actual network in which the host is currently operating.

For a host to go back and forth between different networks, it needs at least two addresses. One of them, the home address, not only contains the interface ID but also an identifier of the home network to which it normally belongs (and the corresponding prefix). The home address is a static address and, as such, it does not normally change. Still, all packets destined to the mobile host can be delivered to it, regardless of whether it operates in the home network or somewhere outside. This is made possible by the completely new features introduced with IPv6, such as stateless autoconfiguration and neighbor discovery. In addition to its home address, a mobile host gets one or more additional addresses that belong to the foreign networks where it is roaming. These are called care-of addresses. The home network has a facility that forwards any packets destined to the host when it is roaming outside. In an IPv6 environment, this task is performed by the home agent, which takes all packets destined to the home address and relays them through a tunnel. On the other hand, those packets destined to the care-of address are directly transferred to the mobile host without any special detours.

13.2.3 Coexistence of IPv4 and IPv6

The migration of all hosts connected to the Internet from IPv4 to IPv6 is a gradual process. Both protocols will coexist for some time to come. The coexistence on one system is guaranteed where there is a dual stack implementation of both protocols. That still leaves the question of how an IPv6 enabled host should communicate with an IPv4 host and how IPv6 packets should be transported by the current networks, which are predominantly IPv4 based. The best solutions offer tunneling and compatibility addresses (see Section 13.2.2, “Address Types and Structure”).

IPv6 hosts that are more or less isolated in the (worldwide) IPv4 network can communicate through tunnels: IPv6 packets are encapsulated as IPv4 packets to move them across an IPv4 network. Such a connection between two IPv4 hosts is called a tunnel. To achieve this, packets must include the IPv6 destination address (or the corresponding prefix) and the IPv4 address of the remote host at the receiving end of the tunnel. A basic tunnel can be configured manually according to an agreement between the hosts' administrators. This is also called static tunneling.

However, the configuration and maintenance of static tunnels is often too labor-intensive to use them for daily communication needs. Therefore, IPv6 provides for three different methods of dynamic tunneling:

6over4

IPv6 packets are automatically encapsulated as IPv4 packets and sent over an IPv4 network capable of multicasting. IPv6 is tricked into seeing the whole network (Internet) as a huge local area network (LAN). This makes it possible to determine the receiving end of the IPv4 tunnel automatically. However, this method does not scale very well and is also hampered because IP multicasting is far from widespread on the Internet. Therefore, it only provides a solution for smaller corporate or institutional networks where multicasting can be enabled. The specifications for this method are laid down in RFC 2529.

6to4

With this method, IPv4 addresses are automatically generated from IPv6 addresses, enabling isolated IPv6 hosts to communicate over an IPv4 network. However, several problems have been reported regarding the communication between those isolated IPv6 hosts and the Internet. The method is described in RFC 3056.

IPv6 Tunnel Broker

This method relies on special servers that provide dedicated tunnels for IPv6 hosts. It is described in RFC 3053.

13.2.4 Configuring IPv6

To configure IPv6, you normally do not need to make any changes on the individual workstations. IPv6 is enabled by default. To disable or enable IPv6 on an installed system, use the YaST Network Settings module. On the Global Options tab, check or uncheck the Enable IPv6 option as necessary. If you want to enable it temporarily until the next reboot, enter modprobe -i ipv6 as root. It is impossible to unload the IPv6 module after it has been loaded.

Because of the autoconfiguration concept of IPv6, the network card is assigned an address in the link-local network. Normally, no routing table management takes place on a workstation. The network routers can be queried by the workstation, using the router advertisement protocol, for what prefix and gateways should be implemented. The radvd program can be used to set up an IPv6 router. This program informs the workstations which prefix to use for the IPv6 addresses and which routers. Alternatively, use zebra/quagga for automatic configuration of both addresses and routing.

For information about how to set up various types of tunnels using the /etc/sysconfig/network files, see the man page of ifcfg-tunnel (man ifcfg-tunnel).

13.2.5 For More Information

The above overview does not cover the topic of IPv6 comprehensively. For a more in-depth look at the new protocol, refer to the following online documentation and books:

http://www.ipv6.org/

The starting point for everything about IPv6.

http://www.ipv6day.org

All information needed to start your own IPv6 network.

http://www.ipv6-to-standard.org/

The list of IPv6-enabled products.

http://www.bieringer.de/linux/IPv6/

Here, find the Linux IPv6-HOWTO and many links related to the topic.

RFC 2460

The fundamental RFC about IPv6.

IPv6 Essentials

A book describing all the important aspects of the topic is IPv6 Essentials by Silvia Hagen (ISBN 0-596-00125-8).

13.3 Name Resolution

DNS assists in assigning an IP address to one or more names and assigning a name to an IP address. In Linux, this conversion is usually carried out by a special type of software known as bind. The machine that takes care of this conversion is called a name server. The names make up a hierarchical system in which each name component is separated by a period. The name hierarchy is, however, independent of the IP address hierarchy described above.

Consider a complete name, such as jupiter.example.com, written in the format hostname.domain. A full name, called a fully qualified domain name (FQDN), consists of a host name and a domain name (example.com). The latter also includes the top level domain or TLD (com).

TLD assignment has become quite confusing for historical reasons. Traditionally, three-letter domain names are used in the USA. In the rest of the world, the two-letter ISO national codes are the standard. In addition to that, longer TLDs were introduced in 2000 that represent certain spheres of activity (for example, .info, .name, .museum).

In the early days of the Internet (before 1990), the file /etc/hosts was used to store the names of all the machines represented over the Internet. This quickly proved to be impractical in the face of the rapidly growing number of computers connected to the Internet. For this reason, a decentralized database was developed to store the host names in a widely distributed manner. This database, similar to the name server, does not have the data pertaining to all hosts in the Internet readily available, but can dispatch requests to other name servers.

The top of the hierarchy is occupied by root name servers. These root name servers manage the top level domains and are run by the Network Information Center (NIC). Each root name server knows about the name servers responsible for a given top level domain. Information about top level domain NICs is available at http://www.internic.net.

DNS can do more than resolve host names. The name server also knows which host is receiving e-mails for an entire domain—the mail exchanger (MX).

For your machine to resolve an IP address, it must know about at least one name server and its IP address. Easily specify such a name server using YaST. The configuration of name server access with openSUSE® Leap is described in Section 13.4.1.4, “Configuring Host Name and DNS”. Setting up your own name server is described in Chapter 19, The Domain Name System.

The protocol whois is closely related to DNS. With this program, quickly find out who is responsible for a given domain.

Note
Note: MDNS and .local Domain Names

The .local top level domain is treated as link-local domain by the resolver. DNS requests are send as multicast DNS requests instead of normal DNS requests. If you already use the .local domain in your name server configuration, you must switch this option off in /etc/host.conf. For more information, see the host.conf manual page.

If you want to switch off MDNS during installation, use nomdns=1 as a boot parameter.

For more information on multicast DNS, see http://www.multicastdns.org.

13.4 Configuring a Network Connection with YaST

There are many supported networking types on Linux. Most of them use different device names and the configuration files are spread over several locations in the file system. For a detailed overview of the aspects of manual network configuration, see Section 13.6, “Configuring a Network Connection Manually”.

All network interfaces with link up (with a network cable connected) are automatically configured. Additional hardware can be configured any time on the installed system. The following sections describe the network configuration for all types of network connections supported by openSUSE Leap.

13.4.1 Configuring the Network Card with YaST

To configure your Ethernet or Wi-Fi/Bluetooth card in YaST, select System › Network Settings. After starting the module, YaST displays the Network Settings dialog with four tabs: Global Options, Overview, Hostname/DNS and Routing.

The Global Options tab allows you to set general networking options such as the network setup method, IPv6, and general DHCP options. For more information, see Section 13.4.1.1, “Configuring Global Networking Options”.

The Overview tab contains information about installed network interfaces and configurations. Any properly detected network card is listed with its name. You can manually configure new cards, remove or change their configuration in this dialog. If you want to manually configure a card that was not automatically detected, see Section 13.4.1.3, “Configuring an Undetected Network Card”. If you want to change the configuration of an already configured card, see Section 13.4.1.2, “Changing the Configuration of a Network Card”.

The Hostname/DNS tab allows to set the host name of the machine and name the servers to be used. For more information, see Section 13.4.1.4, “Configuring Host Name and DNS”.

The Routing tab is used for the configuration of routing. See Section 13.4.1.5, “Configuring Routing” for more information.

Configuring Network Settings
Figure 13.3: Configuring Network Settings

13.4.1.1 Configuring Global Networking Options

The Global Options tab of the YaST Network Settings module allows you to set important global networking options, such as the use of NetworkManager, IPv6 and DHCP client options. These settings are applicable for all network interfaces.

In the Network Setup Method choose the way network connections are managed. If you want a NetworkManager desktop applet to manage connections for all interfaces, choose NetworkManager Service. NetworkManager is well suited for switching between multiple wired and wireless networks. If you do not run a desktop environment, or if your computer is a Xen server, virtual system, or provides network services such as DHCP or DNS in your network, use the Wicked Service method. If NetworkManager is used, nm-applet should be used to configure network options and the Overview, Hostname/DNS and Routing tabs of the Network Settings module are disabled. For more information on NetworkManager, see Chapter 28, Using NetworkManager.

In the IPv6 Protocol Settings choose whether to use the IPv6 protocol. It is possible to use IPv6 together with IPv4. By default, IPv6 is enabled. However, in networks not using IPv6 protocol, response times can be faster with IPv6 protocol disabled. To disable IPv6, deactivate Enable IPv6. If IPv6 is disabled, the kernel no longer loads the IPv6 module automatically. This setting will be applied after reboot.

In the DHCP Client Options configure options for the DHCP client. The DHCP Client Identifier must be different for each DHCP client on a single network. If left empty, it defaults to the hardware address of the network interface. However, if you are running several virtual machines using the same network interface and, therefore, the same hardware address, specify a unique free-form identifier here.

The Hostname to Send specifies a string used for the host name option field when the DHCP client sends messages to DHCP server. Some DHCP servers update name server zones (forward and reverse records) according to this host name (Dynamic DNS). Also, some DHCP servers require the Hostname to Send option field to contain a specific string in the DHCP messages from clients. Leave AUTO to send the current host name (that is the one defined in /etc/HOSTNAME). Make the option field empty for not sending any host name.

If you do not want to change the default route according to the information from DHCP, deactivate Change Default Route via DHCP.

13.4.1.2 Changing the Configuration of a Network Card

To change the configuration of a network card, select a card from the list of the detected cards in Network Settings › Overview in YaST and click Edit. The Network Card Setup dialog appears in which to adjust the card configuration using the General, Address and Hardware tabs.

13.4.1.2.1 Configuring IP Addresses

You can set the IP address of the network card or the way its IP address is determined in the Address tab of the Network Card Setup dialog. Both IPv4 and IPv6 addresses are supported. The network card can have No IP Address (which is useful for bonding devices), a Statically Assigned IP Address (IPv4 or IPv6) or a Dynamic Address assigned via DHCP or Zeroconf or both.

If using Dynamic Address, select whether to use DHCP Version 4 Only (for IPv4), DHCP Version 6 Only (for IPv6) or DHCP Both Version 4 and 6.

If possible, the first network card with link that is available during the installation is automatically configured to use automatic address setup via DHCP.

DHCP should also be used if you are using a DSL line but with no static IP assigned by the ISP (Internet Service Provider). If you decide to use DHCP, configure the details in DHCP Client Options in the Global Options tab of the Network Settings dialog of the YaST network card configuration module. If you have a virtual host setup where different hosts communicate through the same interface, an DHCP Client Identifier is necessary to distinguish them.

DHCP is a good choice for client configuration but it is not ideal for server configuration. To set a static IP address, proceed as follows:

  1. Select a card from the list of detected cards in the Overview tab of the YaST network card configuration module and click Edit.

  2. In the Address tab, choose Statically Assigned IP Address.

  3. Enter the IP Address. Both IPv4 and IPv6 addresses can be used. Enter the network mask in Subnet Mask. If the IPv6 address is used, use Subnet Mask for prefix length in format /64.

    Optionally, you can enter a fully qualified Hostname for this address, which will be written to the /etc/hosts configuration file.

  4. Click Next.

  5. To activate the configuration, click OK.

Note
Note: Interface Activation and Link Detection

During activation of a network interface, wicked checks for a carrier and only applies the IP configuration once a link has been detected. If you need to apply the configuration regardless of the link status—say you want to test a service listening to a certain address—you can skip link detection by adding the variable LINK_REQUIRED=no to the configuration file of the interface in /etc/sysconfig/network/ifcfg.

Additionally, you can use the variable LINK_READY_WAIT=5 to specify the timeout for waiting for a link in seconds.

For more information about the ifcfg-* configuration files, refer to Section 13.6.2.5, “/etc/sysconfig/network/ifcfg-* and man 5 ifcfg.

If you use the static address, the name servers and default gateway are not configured automatically. To configure name servers, proceed as described in Section 13.4.1.4, “Configuring Host Name and DNS”. To configure a gateway, proceed as described in Section 13.4.1.5, “Configuring Routing”.

13.4.1.2.2 Configuring Multiple Addresses

One network device can have multiple IP addresses.

Note
Note: Aliases Are a Compatibility Feature

These so-called aliases or labels, respectively, work with IPv4 only. With IPv6 they will be ignored. Using iproute2 network interfaces can have one or more addresses.

Using YaST to set additional addresses for your network card, proceed as follows:

  1. Select a card from the list of detected cards in the Overview tab of the YaST Network Settings dialog and click Edit.

  2. In the Address › Additional Addresses tab, click Add.

  3. Enter IPv4 Address Label, IP Address, and Netmask. Do not include the interface name in the alias name.

  4. To activate the configuration, confirm the settings.

13.4.1.2.3 Changing the Device Name and Udev Rules

It is possible to change the device name of the network card when it is used. It is also possible to determine whether the network card should be identified by udev via its hardware (MAC) address or via the bus ID. The later option is preferable in large servers to simplify hotplugging of cards. To set these options with YaST, proceed as follows:

  1. Select a card from the list of detected cards in the Overview tab of the YaST Network Settings dialog and click Edit.

  2. Go to the Hardware tab. The current device name is shown in Udev Rules. Click Change.

  3. Select whether udev should identify the card by its MAC Address or Bus ID. The current MAC address and bus ID of the card are shown in the dialog.

  4. To change the device name, check the Change Device Name option and edit the name.

  5. To activate the configuration, confirm the settings.

13.4.1.2.4 Changing Network Card Kernel Driver

For some network cards, several kernel drivers may be available. If the card is already configured, YaST allows you to select a kernel driver to be used from a list of available suitable drivers. It is also possible to specify options for the kernel driver. To set these options with YaST, proceed as follows:

  1. Select a card from the list of detected cards in the Overview tab of the YaST Network Settings module and click Edit.

  2. Go to the Hardware tab.

  3. Select the kernel driver to be used in Module Name. Enter any options for the selected driver in Options in the form = =VALUE. If more options are used, they should be space-separated.

  4. To activate the configuration, confirm the settings.

13.4.1.2.5 Activating the Network Device

If you use the method with wicked, you can configure your device to either start during boot, on cable connection, on card detection, manually, or never. To change device start-up, proceed as follows:

  1. In YaST select a card from the list of detected cards in System › Network Settings and click Edit.

  2. In the General tab, select the desired entry from Device Activation.

    Choose At Boot Time to start the device during the system boot. With On Cable Connection, the interface is watched for any existing physical connection. With On Hotplug, the interface is set when available. It is similar to the At Boot Time option, and only differs in that no error occurs if the interface is not present at boot time. Choose Manually to control the interface manually with ifup. Choose Never to not start the device. The On NFSroot is similar to At Boot Time, but the interface does not shut down with the systemctl stop network command; the network service also cares about the wicked service if wicked is active. Use this if you use an NFS or iSCSI root file system.

  3. To activate the configuration, confirm the settings.

Tip
Tip: NFS as a Root File System

On (diskless) systems where the root partition is mounted via network as an NFS share, you need to be careful when configuring the network device with which the NFS share is accessible.

When shutting down or rebooting the system, the default processing order is to turn off network connections, then unmount the root partition. With NFS root, this order causes problems as the root partition cannot be cleanly unmounted as the network connection to the NFS share is already not activated. To prevent the system from deactivating the relevant network device, open the network device configuration tab as described in Section 13.4.1.2.5, “Activating the Network Device”, and choose On NFSroot in the Device Activation pane.

13.4.1.2.6 Setting Up Maximum Transfer Unit Size

You can set a maximum transmission unit (MTU) for the interface. MTU refers to the largest allowed packet size in bytes. A higher MTU brings higher bandwidth efficiency. However, large packets can block up a slow interface for some time, increasing the lag for further packets.

  1. In YaST select a card from the list of detected cards in System › Network Settings and click Edit.

  2. In the General tab, select the desired entry from the Set MTU list.

  3. To activate the configuration, confirm the settings.

13.4.1.2.7 PCIe Multifunction Devices

Multifunction devices that support LAN, iSCSI, and FCoE are supported. YaST FCoE client (yast2 fcoe-client) shows the private flags in additional columns to allow the user to select the device meant for FCoE. YaST network module (yast2 lan) excludes storage only devices for network configuration.

13.4.1.2.8 Infiniband Configuration for IP-over-InfiniBand (IPoIB)
  1. In YaST select the InfiniBand device in System › Network Settings and click Edit.

  2. In the General tab, select one of the IP-over-InfiniBand (IPoIB) modes: connected (default) or datagram.

  3. To activate the configuration, confirm the settings.

For more information about InfiniBand, see /usr/src/linux/Documentation/infiniband/ipoib.txt.

13.4.1.2.9 Configuring the Firewall

Without having to enter the detailed firewall setup as described in Book “Security Guide”, Chapter 15 “Masquerading and Firewalls”, Section 15.4.1 “Configuring the Firewall with YaST”, you can determine the basic firewall setup for your device as part of the device setup. Proceed as follows:

  1. Open the YaST System › Network Settings module. In the Overview tab, select a card from the list of detected cards and click Edit.

  2. Enter the General tab of the Network Settings dialog.

  3. Determine the Firewall Zone to which your interface should be assigned. The following options are available:

    Firewall Disabled

    This option is available only if the firewall is disabled and the firewall does not run. Only use this option if your machine is part of a greater network that is protected by an outer firewall.

    Automatically Assign Zone

    This option is available only if the firewall is enabled. The firewall is running and the interface is automatically assigned to a firewall zone. The zone which contains the keyword any or the external zone will be used for such an interface.

    Internal Zone (Unprotected)

    The firewall is running, but does not enforce any rules to protect this interface. Use this option if your machine is part of a greater network that is protected by an outer firewall. It is also useful for the interfaces connected to the internal network, when the machine has more network interfaces.

    Demilitarized Zone

    A demilitarized zone is an additional line of defense in front of an internal network and the (hostile) Internet. Hosts assigned to this zone can be reached from the internal network and from the Internet, but cannot access the internal network.

    External Zone

    The firewall is running on this interface and fully protects it against other—presumably hostile—network traffic. This is the default option.

  4. To activate the configuration, confirm the settings.

13.4.1.3 Configuring an Undetected Network Card

If a network card is not detected correctly, the card is not included in the list of detected cards. If you are sure that your system includes a driver for your card, you can configure it manually. You can also configure special network device types, such as bridge, bond, TUN or TAP. To configure an undetected network card (or a special device) proceed as follows:

  1. In the System › Network Settings › Overview dialog in YaST click Add.

  2. In the Hardware dialog, set the Device Type of the interface from the available options and Configuration Name. If the network card is a PCMCIA or USB device, activate the respective check box and exit this dialog with Next. Otherwise, you can define the kernel Module Name to be used for the card and its Options, if necessary.

    In Ethtool Options, you can set ethtool options used by ifup for the interface. For information about available options, see the ethtool manual page.

    If the option string starts with a - (for example, -K INTERFACE_NAME rx on), the second word in the string is replaced with the current interface name. Otherwise (for example, autoneg off speed 10) ifup adds -s INTERFACE_NAME to the beginning.

  3. Click Next.

  4. Configure any needed options, such as the IP address, device activation or firewall zone for the interface in the General, Address, and Hardware tabs. For more information about the configuration options, see Section 13.4.1.2, “Changing the Configuration of a Network Card”.

  5. If you selected Wireless as the device type of the interface, configure the wireless connection in the next dialog.

  6. To activate the new network configuration, confirm the settings.

13.4.1.4 Configuring Host Name and DNS

If you did not change the network configuration during installation and the Ethernet card was already available, a host name was automatically generated for your computer and DHCP was activated. The same applies to the name service information your host needs to integrate into a network environment. If DHCP is used for network address setup, the list of domain name servers is automatically filled with the appropriate data. If a static setup is preferred, set these values manually.

To change the name of your computer and adjust the name server search list, proceed as follows:

  1. Go to the Network Settings › Hostname/DNS tab in the System module in YaST.

  2. Enter the Hostname and, if needed, the Domain Name. The domain is especially important if the machine is a mail server. Note that the host name is global and applies to all set network interfaces.

    If you are using DHCP to get an IP address, the host name of your computer will be automatically set by the DHCP. You should disable this behavior if you connect to different networks, because they may assign different host names and changing the host name at runtime may confuse the graphical desktop. To disable using DHCP to get an IP address deactivate Change Hostname via DHCP.

    Assign Hostname to Loopback IP associates your host name with 127.0.0.2 (loopback) IP address in /etc/hosts. This is a useful option if you want to have the host name resolvable at all times, even without active network.

  3. In Modify DNS Configuration, select the way the DNS configuration (name servers, search list, the content of the /etc/resolv.conf file) is modified.

    If the Use Default Policy option is selected, the configuration is handled by the netconfig script which merges the data defined statically (with YaST or in the configuration files) with data obtained dynamically (from the DHCP client or NetworkManager). This default policy is usually sufficient.

    If the Only Manually option is selected, netconfig is not allowed to modify the /etc/resolv.conf file. However, this file can be edited manually.

    If the Custom Policy option is selected, a Custom Policy Rule string defining the merge policy should be specified. The string consists of a comma-separated list of interface names to be considered a valid source of settings. Except for complete interface names, basic wild cards to match multiple interfaces are allowed, as well. For example, eth* ppp? will first target all eth and then all ppp0-ppp9 interfaces. There are two special policy values that indicate how to apply the static settings defined in the /etc/sysconfig/network/config file:

    STATIC

    The static settings need to be merged together with the dynamic settings.

    STATIC_FALLBACK

    The static settings are used only when no dynamic configuration is available.

    For more information, see the man page of netconfig(8) (man 8 netconfig).

  4. Enter the Name Servers and fill in the Domain Search list. Name servers must be specified by IP addresses, such as 192.168.1.116, not by host names. Names specified in the Domain Search tab are domain names used for resolving host names without a specified domain. If more than one Domain Search is used, separate domains with commas or white space.

  5. To activate the configuration, confirm the settings.

It is also possible to edit the host name using YaST from the command line. The changes made by YaST take effect immediately (which is not the case when editing the /etc/HOSTNAME file manually). To change the host name, use the following command:

yast dns edit hostname=HOSTNAME

To change the name servers, use the following commands:

yast dns edit nameserver1=192.168.1.116
yast dns edit nameserver2=192.168.1.117
yast dns edit nameserver3=192.168.1.118

13.4.1.5 Configuring Routing

To make your machine communicate with other machines and other networks, routing information must be given to make network traffic take the correct path. If DHCP is used, this information is automatically provided. If a static setup is used, this data must be added manually.

  1. In YaST go to Network Settings › Routing.

  2. Enter the IP address of the Default Gateway (IPv4 and IPv6 if necessary). The default gateway matches every possible destination, but if a routing table entry exists that matches the required address, this will be used instead of the default route via the Default Gateway.

  3. More entries can be entered in the Routing Table. Enter the Destination network IP address, Gateway IP address and the Netmask. Select the Device through which the traffic to the defined network will be routed (the minus sign stands for any device). To omit any of these values, use the minus sign -. To enter a default gateway into the table, use default in the Destination field.

    Note
    Note: Route Prioritization

    If more default routes are used, it is possible to specify the metric option to determine which route has a higher priority. To specify the metric option, enter - metric NUMBER in Options. The route with the highest metric is used as default. If the network device is disconnected, its route will be removed and the next one will be used. However, the current kernel does not use metric in static routing, only routing daemons like multipathd do.

  4. If the system is a router, enable IPv4 Forwarding and IPv6 Forwarding in the Network Settings as needed.

  5. To activate the configuration, confirm the settings.

13.5 NetworkManager

NetworkManager is the ideal solution for laptops and other portable computers. With NetworkManager, you do not need to worry about configuring network interfaces and switching between networks when you are moving.

13.5.1 NetworkManager and wicked

However, NetworkManager is not a suitable solution for all cases, so you can still choose between the wicked controlled method for managing network connections and NetworkManager. If you want to manage your network connection with NetworkManager, enable NetworkManager in the YaST Network Settings module as described in Section 28.2, “Enabling or Disabling NetworkManager” and configure your network connections with NetworkManager. For a list of use cases and a detailed description of how to configure and use NetworkManager, refer to Chapter 28, Using NetworkManager.

Some differences between wicked and NetworkManager:

root Privileges

If you use NetworkManager for network setup, you can easily switch, stop or start your network connection at any time from within your desktop environment using an applet. NetworkManager also makes it possible to change and configure wireless card connections without requiring root privileges. For this reason, NetworkManager is the ideal solution for a mobile workstation.

wicked also provides some ways to switch, stop or start the connection with or without user intervention, like user-managed devices. However, this always requires root privileges to change or configure a network device. This is often a problem for mobile computing, where it is not possible to preconfigure all the connection possibilities.

Types of Network Connections

Both wicked and NetworkManager can handle network connections with a wireless network (with WEP, WPA-PSK, and WPA-Enterprise access) and wired networks using DHCP and static configuration. They also support connection through dial-up and VPN. With NetworkManager you can also connect a mobile broadband (3G) modem or set up a DSL connection, which is not possible with the traditional configuration.

NetworkManager tries to keep your computer connected at all times using the best connection available. If the network cable is accidentally disconnected, it tries to reconnect. It can find the network with the best signal strength from the list of your wireless connections and automatically use it to connect. To get the same functionality with wicked, more configuration effort is required.

13.5.2 NetworkManager Functionality and Configuration Files

The individual network connection settings created with NetworkManager are stored in configuration profiles. The system connections configured with either NetworkManager or YaST are saved in /etc/networkmanager/system-connections/* or in /etc/sysconfig/network/ifcfg-*. For GNOME, all user-defined connections are stored in GConf.

In case no profile is configured, NetworkManager automatically creates one and names it Auto $INTERFACE-NAME. That is made in an attempt to work without any configuration for as many cases as (securely) possible. If the automatically created profiles do not suit your needs, use the network connection configuration dialogs provided by GNOME to modify them as desired. For more information, see Section 28.3, “Configuring Network Connections”.

13.5.3 Controlling and Locking Down NetworkManager Features

On centrally administered machines, certain NetworkManager features can be controlled or disabled with PolKit, for example if a user is allowed to modify administrator defined connections or if a user is allowed to define his own network configurations. To view or change the respective NetworkManager policies, start the graphical Authorizations tool for PolKit. In the tree on the left side, find them below the network-manager-settings entry. For an introduction to PolKit and details on how to use it, refer to Book “Security Guide”, Chapter 9 “Authorization with PolKit”.

13.6 Configuring a Network Connection Manually

Manual configuration of the network software should be the last alternative. Using YaST is recommended. However, this background information about the network configuration can also assist your work with YaST.

13.6.1 The wicked Network Configuration

The tool and library called wicked provides a new framework for network configuration.

One of the challenges with traditional network interface management is that different layers of network management get jumbled together into one single script, or at most two different scripts, that interact with each other in a not-really-well-defined way, with side effects that are difficult to be aware of, obscure constraints and conventions, etc. Several layers of special hacks for a variety of different scenarios increase the maintenance burden. Address configuration protocols are being used that are implemented via daemons like dhcpcd, which interact rather poorly with the rest of the infrastructure. Funky interface naming schemes that require heavy udev support are introduced to achieve persistent identification of interfaces.

The idea of wicked is to decompose the problem in several ways. None of them is entirely novel, but trying to put ideas from different projects together is hopefully going to create a better solution overall.

One approach is to use a client/server model. This allows wicked to define standardized facilities for things like address configuration that are well integrated with the overall framework. For example, with address configuration, the administrator may request that an interface should be configured via DHCP or IPv4 zeroconf, and all the address configuration service does is obtain the lease from its server, and pass it on to the wicked server process, which installs the requested addresses and routes.

The other approach to decomposing the problem is to enforce the layering aspect. For any type of network interface, it is possible to define a dbus service that configures the network interface's device layer—a VLAN, a bridge, a bonding, or a paravirtualized device. Common functionality, such as address configuration, is implemented by joint services that are layered on top of these device specific services, without having to implement them specifically.

The wicked framework implements these two aspects by using a variety of dbus services, which get attached to a network interface depending on its type. Here is a rough overview of the current object hierarchy in wicked.

Each network interface is represented via a child object of /org/opensuse/Network/Interfaces. The name of the child object is given by its ifindex. For example, the loopback interface, which usually gets ifindex 1, is /org/opensuse/Network/Interfaces/1, the first Ethernet interface registered is /org/opensuse/Network/Interfaces/2.

Each network interface has a class associated with it, which is used to select the dbus interfaces it supports. By default, each network interface is of class netif, and wickedd will automatically attach all interfaces compatible with this class. In the current implementation, this includes the following interfaces:

org.opensuse.Network.Interface

Generic network interface functions, such as taking the link up or down, assigning an MTU, etc.

org.opensuse.Network.Addrconf.ipv4.dhcp, org.opensuse.Network.Addrconf.ipv6.dhcp, org.opensuse.Network.Addrconf.ipv4.auto

Address configuration services for DHCP, IPv4 zeroconf, etc.

Beyond this, network interfaces may require or offer special configuration mechanisms. For example, for an Ethernet device, you should be able to control the link speed, offloading of checksumming, etc. To achieve this, Ethernet devices have a class of their own, called netif-ethernet, which is a subclass of netif. As a consequence, the dbus interfaces assigned to an Ethernet interface include all the services listed above, plus org.opensuse.Network.Ethernet, which is a service available only to objects belonging to the netif-ethernet class.

Similarly, there exist classes for interface types like bridges, VLANs, bonds, or infinibands.

How do you interact with an interface that needs to be created first—such as a VLAN, which is really a virtual network interface that sits on top of an Ethernet device. For these, wicked defines factory interfaces, such as org.opensuse.Network.VLAN.Factory. Such a factory interface offers a single function that lets you create an interface of the requested type. These factory interfaces are attached to the /org/opensuse/Network/Interfaces list node.

13.6.1.1 wicked Architecture and Features

The wicked service comprises several parts as depicted in Figure 13.4, “wicked architecture”.

wicked architecture
Figure 13.4: wicked architecture

wicked currently supports the following:

  • Configuration file back-ends to parse SUSE style /etc/sysconfig/network files.

  • An internal configuration back-end to represent network interface configuration in XML.

  • Bring up and shutdown of normal network interfaces such as Ethernet or InfiniBand, VLAN, bridge, bonds, tun, tap, dummy, macvlan, macvtap, hsi, qeth, iucv, and wireless (currently limited to one wpa-psk/eap network) devices.

  • A built-in DHCPv4 client and a built-in DHCPv6 client.

  • The nanny daemon (enabled by default) helps to automatically bring up configured interfaces when the device is available (interface hotplugging) and set up the IP configuration when a link (carrier) is detected. See Section 13.6.1.3, “Nanny” for more information.

  • wicked was implemented as a group of DBus services that are integrated with systemd. So the usual systemctl commands will apply to wicked.

13.6.1.2 Using wicked

On openSUSE Leap wicked is running by default on desktop or server hardware. On mobile hardware NetworkManager is running by default. If you want to check what is currently enabled and whether it is running, call:

systemctl status network

If wicked is enabled, you will see something along these lines:

wicked.service - wicked managed network interfaces
    Loaded: loaded (/usr/lib/systemd/system/wicked.service; enabled)
    ...

In case something different is running (for example, NetworkManager) and you want to switch to wicked, first stop what is running and then enable wicked:

systemctl is-active network && \
systemctl stop      network
systemctl enable --force wicked

This enables the wicked services, creates the network.service to wicked.service alias link, and starts the network at the next boot.

Starting the server process:

systemctl start wickedd

This starts wickedd (the main server) and associated supplicants:

/usr/lib/wicked/bin/wickedd-auto4 --systemd --foreground
/usr/lib/wicked/bin/wickedd-dhcp4 --systemd --foreground
/usr/lib/wicked/bin/wickedd-dhcp6 --systemd --foreground
/usr/sbin/wickedd --systemd --foreground
/usr/sbin/wickedd-nanny --systemd --foreground

Then bringing up the network:

systemctl start wicked

Alternatively use the network.service alias:

systemctl start network

These commands are using the default or system configuration sources as defined in /etc/wicked/client.xml.

To enable debugging, set WICKED_DEBUG in /etc/sysconfig/network/config, for example:

WICKED_DEBUG="all"

Or, to omit some:

WICKED_DEBUG="all,-dbus,-objectmodel,-xpath,-xml"

Use the client utility to display interface information for all interfaces or the interface specified with IFNAME:

wicked show all
wicked show IFNAME

In XML output:

wicked show-xml all
wicked show-xml IFNAME

Bringing up one interface:

wicked ifup eth0
wicked ifup wlan0
...

Because there is no configuration source specified, the wicked client checks its default sources of configuration defined in /etc/wicked/client.xml:

  1. firmware: iSCSI Boot Firmware Table (iBFT)

  2. compat: ifcfg files—implemented for compatibility

Whatever wicked gets from those sources for a given interface is applied. The intended order of importance is firmware, then compat—this may be changed in the future.

For more information, see the wicked man page.

13.6.1.3 Nanny

Nanny is an event and policy driven daemon that is responsible for asynchronous or unsolicited scenarios such as hotplugging devices. Thus the nanny daemon helps with starting or restarting delayed or temporarily gone devices. Nanny monitors device and link changes, and integrates new devices defined by the current policy set. Nanny continues to set up even if ifup already exited because of specified timeout constraints.

By default, the nanny daemon is active on the system. It is enabled in the /etc/wicked/common.xml configuration file:

<config>
  ...
  <use-nanny>true</use-nanny>
</config>

This setting causes ifup and ifreload to apply a policy with the effective configuration to the nanny daemon; then, nanny configures wickedd and thus ensures hotplug support. It waits in the background for events or changes (such as new devices or carrier on).

13.6.1.4 Bringing Up Multiple Interfaces

For bonds and bridges, it may make sense to define the entire device topology in one file (ifcfg-bondX), and bring it up in one go. wicked then can bring up the whole configuration if you specify the top level interface names (of the bridge or bond):

wicked ifup br0

This command automatically sets up the bridge and its dependencies in the appropriate order without the need to list the dependencies (ports, etc.) separately.

To bring up multiple interfaces in one command:

wicked ifup bond0 br0 br1 br2

Or also all interfaces:

wicked ifup all

13.6.1.5 Using Tunnels with Wicked

When you need to use tunnels with Wicked, the TUNNEL_DEVICE is utilized for this. It permits to specify an optional device name to bind the tunnel to the device. The tunneled packets will only be routed via this device.

For more information, refer to man 5 ifcfg-tunnel.

13.6.1.6 Handling Incremental Changes

With wicked, there is no need to actually take down an interface to reconfigure it (unless it is required by the kernel). For example, to add another IP address or route to a statically configured network interface, add the IP address to the interface definition, and do another ifup operation. The server will try hard to update only those settings that have changed. This applies to link-level options such as the device MTU or the MAC address, and network-level settings, such as addresses, routes, or even the address configuration mode (for example, when moving from a static configuration to DHCP).

Things get tricky of course with virtual interfaces combining several real devices such as bridges or bonds. For bonded devices, it is not possible to change certain parameters while the device is up. Doing that will result in an error.

However, what should still work, is the act of adding or removing the child devices of a bond or bridge, or choosing a bond's primary interface.

13.6.1.7 Wicked Extensions: Address Configuration

wicked is designed to be extensible with shell scripts. These extensions can be defined in the config.xml file.

Currently, several classes of extensions are supported:

  • link configuration: these are scripts responsible for setting up a device's link layer according to the configuration provided by the client, and for tearing it down again.

  • address configuration: these are scripts responsible for managing a device's address configuration. Usually address configuration and DHCP are managed by wicked itself, but can be implemented by means of extensions.

  • firewall extension: these scripts can apply firewall rules.

Typically, extensions have a start and a stop command, an optional pid file, and a set of environment variables that get passed to the script.

To illustrate how this is supposed to work, look at a firewall extension defined in etc/server.xml:

<dbus-service interface="org.opensuse.Network.Firewall">
 <action name="firewallUp"   command="/etc/wicked/extensions/firewall up"/>
 <action name="firewallDown" command="/etc/wicked/extensions/firewall down"/>

 <!-- default environment for all calls to this extension script -->
 <putenv name="WICKED_OBJECT_PATH" value="$object-path"/>
 <putenv name="WICKED_INTERFACE_NAME" value="$property:name"/>
 <putenv name="WICKED_INTERFACE_INDEX" value="$property:index"/>
</dbus-service>

The extension is attached to the <dbus-service> tag and defines commands to execute for the actions of this interface. Further, the declaration can define and initialize environment variables passed to the actions.

13.6.1.8 Wicked Extensions: Configuration Files

You can extend the handling of configuration files with scripts as well. For example, DNS updates from leases are ultimately handled by the extensions/resolver script, with behavior configured in server.xml:

<system-updater name="resolver">
 <action name="backup" command="/etc/wicked/extensions/resolver backup"/>
 <action name="restore" command="/etc/wicked/extensions/resolver restore"/>
 <action name="install" command="/etc/wicked/extensions/resolver install"/>
 <action name="remove" command="/etc/wicked/extensions/resolver remove"/>
</system-updater>

When an update arrives in wickedd, the system updater routines parse the lease and call the appropriate commands (backup, install, etc.) in the resolver script. This in turn configures the DNS settings using /sbin/netconfig, or by manually writing /etc/resolv.conf as a fallback.

13.6.2 Configuration Files

This section provides an overview of the network configuration files and explains their purpose and the format used.

13.6.2.1 /etc/wicked/common.xml

The /etc/wicked/common.xml file contains common definitions that should be used by all applications. It is sourced/included by the other configuration files in this directory. Even though you can use this file to, for example, enable debugging across all wicked components, we recommend to use the file /etc/wicked/local.xml for this purpose. After applying maintenance updates you might lose your changes as the /etc/wicked/common.xml might be overwritten. The /etc/wicked/common.xml file includes the /etc/wicked/local.xml in the default installation, thus you typically do not need to modify the /etc/wicked/common.xml.

In case you want to disable nanny by setting the <use-nanny> to false, restart the wickedd.service and then run the following command to apply all configurations and policies:

wicked ifup all
Note
Note: Configuration Files

The wickedd, wicked, or nanny programs try to read /etc/wicked/common.xml if their own configuration files do not exist.

13.6.2.2 /etc/wicked/server.xml

The file /etc/wicked/server.xml is read by the wickedd server process at start-up. The file stores extensions to the /etc/wicked/common.xml. On top of that this file configures handling of a resolver and receiving information from addrconf supplicants, for example DHCP.

We recommend to add changes required to this file into a separate file /etc/wicked/server-local.xml, that gets included by /etc/wicked/server.xml. By using a separate file you avoid overwriting of your changes during maintenance updates.

13.6.2.3 /etc/wicked/client.xml

The /etc/wicked/client.xml is used by the wicked command. The file specifies the location of a script used when discovering devices managed by ibft and also configures locations of network interface configurations.

We recommend to add changes required to this file into a separate file /etc/wicked/client-local.xml, that gets included by /etc/wicked/server.xml. By using a separate file you avoid overwriting of your changes during maintenance updates.

13.6.2.4 /etc/wicked/nanny.xml

The /etc/wicked/nanny.xml configures types of link layers. We recommend to add specific configuration into a separate file: /etc/wicked/nanny-local.xml to avoid losing the changes during maintenance updates.

13.6.2.5 /etc/sysconfig/network/ifcfg-*

These files contain the traditional configurations for network interfaces. In openSUSE prior to Leap, this was the only supported format besides iBFT firmware.

Note
Note: wicked and the ifcfg-* Files

wicked reads these files if you specify the compat: prefix. According to the openSUSE Leap default configuration in /etc/wicked/client.xml, wicked tries these files before the XML configuration files in /etc/wicked/ifconfig.

The --ifconfig switch is provided mostly for testing only. If specified, default configuration sources defined in /etc/wicked/ifconfig are not applied.

The ifcfg-* files include information such as the start mode and the IP address. Possible parameters are described in the manual page of ifup. Additionally, most variables from the dhcp and wireless files can be used in the ifcfg-* files if a general setting should be used for only one interface. However, most of the /etc/sysconfig/network/config variables are global and cannot be overridden in ifcfg-files. For example, NETCONFIG_* variables are global.

For configuring macvlan and macvtab interfaces, see the ifcfg-macvlan and ifcfg-macvtap man pages. For example, for a macvlan interface provide a ifcfg-macvlan0 with settings as follows:

STARTMODE='auto'
MACVLAN_DEVICE='eth0'
#MACVLAN_MODE='vepa'
#LLADDR=02:03:04:05:06:aa

For ifcfg.template, see Section 13.6.2.6, “/etc/sysconfig/network/config, /etc/sysconfig/network/dhcp, and /etc/sysconfig/network/wireless.

13.6.2.6 /etc/sysconfig/network/config, /etc/sysconfig/network/dhcp, and /etc/sysconfig/network/wireless

The file config contains general settings for the behavior of ifup, ifdown and ifstatus. dhcp contains settings for DHCP and wireless for wireless LAN cards. The variables in all three configuration files are commented. Some variables from /etc/sysconfig/network/config can also be used in ifcfg-* files, where they are given a higher priority. The /etc/sysconfig/network/ifcfg.template file lists variables that can be specified in a per interface scope. However, most of the /etc/sysconfig/network/config variables are global and cannot be overridden in ifcfg-files. For example, NETWORKMANAGER or NETCONFIG_* variables are global.

Note
Note: Using DHCPv6

In openSUSE prior to Leap, DHCPv6 used to work even on networks where IPv6 Router Advertisements (RAs) were not configured properly. Starting with openSUSE Leap, DHCPv6 will correctly require that at least one of the routers on the network sends out RAs that indicate that this network is managed by DHCPv6.

For those networks where the router cannot be configured correctly, there is an ifcfg option that allows the user to override this behavior by specifying DHCLIENT6_MODE='managed' in the ifcfg file. You can also activate this workaround with a boot parameter in the installation system:

ifcfg=eth0=dhcp6,DHCLIENT6_MODE=managed

13.6.2.7 /etc/sysconfig/network/routes and /etc/sysconfig/network/ifroute-*

The static routing of TCP/IP packets is determined by the /etc/sysconfig/network/routes and /etc/sysconfig/network/ifroute-* files. All the static routes required by the various system tasks can be specified in /etc/sysconfig/network/routes: routes to a host, routes to a host via a gateway and routes to a network. For each interface that needs individual routing, define an additional configuration file: /etc/sysconfig/network/ifroute-*. Replace the wild card (*) with the name of the interface. The entries in the routing configuration files look like this:

# Destination     Gateway           Netmask            Interface  Options

The route's destination is in the first column. This column may contain the IP address of a network or host or, in the case of reachable name servers, the fully qualified network or host name. The network should be written in CIDR notation (address with the associated routing prefix-length) such as 10.10.0.0/16 for IPv4 or fc00::/7 for IPv6 routes. The keyword default indicates that the route is the default gateway in the same address family as the gateway. For devices without a gateway use explicit 0.0.0.0/0 or ::/0 destinations.

The second column contains the default gateway or a gateway through which a host or network can be accessed.

The third column is deprecated; it used to contain the IPv4 netmask of the destination. For IPv6 routes, the default route, or when using a prefix-length (CIDR notation) in the first column, enter a dash (-) here.

The fourth column contains the name of the interface. If you leave it empty using a dash (-), it can cause unintended behavior in /etc/sysconfig/network/routes. For more information, see the routes man page.

An (optional) fifth column can be used to specify special options. For details, see the routes man page.

Example 13.5: Common Network Interfaces and Some Static Routes
# --- IPv4 routes in CIDR prefix notation:
# Destination     [Gateway]         -                  Interface
127.0.0.0/8       -                 -                  lo
204.127.235.0/24  -                 -                  eth0
default           204.127.235.41    -                  eth0
207.68.156.51/32  207.68.145.45     -                  eth1
192.168.0.0/16    207.68.156.51     -                  eth1

# --- IPv4 routes in deprecated netmask notation"
# Destination     [Dummy/Gateway]   Netmask            Interface
#
127.0.0.0         0.0.0.0           255.255.255.0      lo
204.127.235.0     0.0.0.0           255.255.255.0      eth0
default           204.127.235.41    0.0.0.0            eth0
207.68.156.51     207.68.145.45     255.255.255.255    eth1
192.168.0.0       207.68.156.51     255.255.0.0        eth1

# --- IPv6 routes are always using CIDR notation:
# Destination     [Gateway]                -           Interface
2001:DB8:100::/64 -                        -           eth0
2001:DB8:100::/32 fe80::216:3eff:fe6d:c042 -           eth0

13.6.2.8 /etc/resolv.conf

The domain to which the host belongs is specified in /etc/resolv.conf (keyword search). Up to six domains with a total of 256 characters can be specified with the search option. When resolving a name that is not fully qualified, an attempt is made to generate one by attaching the individual search entries. Up to 3 name servers can be specified with the nameserver option, each on a line of its own. Comments are preceded by hash mark or semicolon signs (# or ;). As an example, see Example 13.6, “/etc/resolv.conf.

However, the /etc/resolv.conf should not be edited by hand. Instead, it is generated by the netconfig script. To define static DNS configuration without using YaST, edit the appropriate variables manually in the /etc/sysconfig/network/config file:

NETCONFIG_DNS_STATIC_SEARCHLIST

list of DNS domain names used for host name lookup

NETCONFIG_DNS_STATIC_SERVERS

list of name server IP addresses to use for host name lookup

NETCONFIG_DNS_FORWARDER

the name of the DNS forwarder that needs to be configured, for example bind or resolver

NETCONFIG_DNS_RESOLVER_OPTIONS

arbitrary options that will be written to /etc/resolv.conf, for example:

debug attempts:1 timeout:10

For more information, see the resolv.conf man page.

NETCONFIG_DNS_RESOLVER_SORTLIST

list of up to 10 items, for example:

130.155.160.0/255.255.240.0 130.155.0.0

For more information, see the resolv.conf man page.

To disable DNS configuration using netconfig, set NETCONFIG_DNS_POLICY=''. For more information about netconfig, see the netconfig(8) man page (man 8 netconfig).

Example 13.6: /etc/resolv.conf
# Our domain
search example.com
#
# We use dns.example.com (192.168.1.116) as nameserver
nameserver 192.168.1.116

13.6.2.9 /sbin/netconfig

netconfig is a modular tool to manage additional network configuration settings. It merges statically defined settings with settings provided by autoconfiguration mechanisms as DHCP or PPP according to a predefined policy. The required changes are applied to the system by calling the netconfig modules that are responsible for modifying a configuration file and restarting a service or a similar action.

netconfig recognizes three main actions. The netconfig modify and netconfig remove commands are used by daemons such as DHCP or PPP to provide or remove settings to netconfig. Only the netconfig update command is available for the user:

modify

The netconfig modify command modifies the current interface and service specific dynamic settings and updates the network configuration. Netconfig reads settings from standard input or from a file specified with the --lease-file FILENAME option and internally stores them until a system reboot (or the next modify or remove action). Already existing settings for the same interface and service combination are overwritten. The interface is specified by the -i INTERFACE_NAME parameter. The service is specified by the -s SERVICE_NAME parameter.

remove

The netconfig remove command removes the dynamic settings provided by a modificatory action for the specified interface and service combination and updates the network configuration. The interface is specified by the -i INTERFACE_NAME parameter. The service is specified by the -s SERVICE_NAME parameter.

update

The netconfig update command updates the network configuration using current settings. This is useful when the policy or the static configuration has changed. Use the -m MODULE_TYPE parameter, if you want to update a specified service only (dns, nis, or ntp).

The netconfig policy and the static configuration settings are defined either manually or using YaST in the /etc/sysconfig/network/config file. The dynamic configuration settings provided by autoconfiguration tools such as DHCP or PPP are delivered directly by these tools with the netconfig modify and netconfig remove actions. When NetworkManager is enabled, netconfig (in policy mode auto) uses only NetworkManager settings, ignoring settings from any other interfaces configured using the traditional ifup method. If NetworkManager does not provide any setting, static settings are used as a fallback. A mixed usage of NetworkManager and the wicked method is not supported.

For more information about netconfig, see man 8 netconfig.

13.6.2.10 /etc/hosts

In this file, shown in Example 13.7, “/etc/hosts, IP addresses are assigned to host names. If no name server is implemented, all hosts to which an IP connection will be set up must be listed here. For each host, enter a line consisting of the IP address, the fully qualified host name, and the host name into the file. The IP address must be at the beginning of the line and the entries separated by blanks and tabs. Comments are always preceded by the # sign.

Example 13.7: /etc/hosts
127.0.0.1 localhost
192.168.2.100 jupiter.example.com jupiter
192.168.2.101 venus.example.com venus

13.6.2.11 /etc/networks

Here, network names are converted to network addresses. The format is similar to that of the hosts file, except the network names precede the addresses. See Example 13.8, “/etc/networks.

Example 13.8: /etc/networks
loopback     127.0.0.0
localnet     192.168.0.0

13.6.2.12 /etc/host.conf

Name resolution—the translation of host and network names via the resolver library—is controlled by this file. This file is only used for programs linked to libc4 or libc5. For current glibc programs, refer to the settings in /etc/nsswitch.conf. Each parameter must always be entered on a separate line. Comments are preceded by a # sign. Table 13.2, “Parameters for /etc/host.conf” shows the parameters available. A sample /etc/host.conf is shown in Example 13.9, “/etc/host.conf.

Table 13.2: Parameters for /etc/host.conf

order hosts, bind

Specifies in which order the services are accessed for the name resolution. Available arguments are (separated by blank spaces or commas):

hosts: searches the /etc/hosts file

bind: accesses a name server

nis: uses NIS

multi on/off

Defines if a host entered in /etc/hosts can have multiple IP addresses.

nospoof on spoofalert on/off

These parameters influence the name server spoofing but do not exert any influence on the network configuration.

trim domainname

The specified domain name is separated from the host name after host name resolution (as long as the host name includes the domain name). This option is useful only if names from the local domain are in the /etc/hosts file, but should still be recognized with the attached domain names.

Example 13.9: /etc/host.conf
# We have named running
order hosts bind
# Allow multiple address
multi on

13.6.2.13 /etc/nsswitch.conf

The introduction of the GNU C Library 2.0 was accompanied by the introduction of the Name Service Switch (NSS). Refer to the nsswitch.conf(5) man page and The GNU C Library Reference Manual for details.

The order for queries is defined in the file /etc/nsswitch.conf. A sample nsswitch.conf is shown in Example 13.10, “/etc/nsswitch.conf. Comments are preceded by # signs. In this example, the entry under the hosts database means that a request is sent to /etc/hosts (files) via DNS (see Chapter 19, The Domain Name System).

Example 13.10: /etc/nsswitch.conf
passwd:     compat
group:      compat

hosts:      files dns
networks:   files dns

services:   db files
protocols:  db files
rpc:        files
ethers:     files
netmasks:   files
netgroup:   files nis
publickey:  files

bootparams: files
automount:  files nis
aliases:    files nis
shadow:     compat

The databases available over NSS are listed in Table 13.3, “Databases Available via /etc/nsswitch.conf”. The configuration options for NSS databases are listed in Table 13.4, “Configuration Options for NSS Databases.

Table 13.3: Databases Available via /etc/nsswitch.conf

aliases

Mail aliases implemented by sendmail; see man 5 aliases.

ethers

Ethernet addresses.

netmasks

List of networks and their subnet masks. Only needed, if you use subnetting.

group

User groups used by getgrent. See also the man page for group.

hosts

Host names and IP addresses, used by gethostbyname and similar functions.

netgroup

Valid host and user lists in the network for controlling access permissions; see the netgroup(5) man page.

networks

Network names and addresses, used by getnetent.

publickey

Public and secret keys for Secure_RPC used by NFS and NIS+.

passwd

User passwords, used by getpwent; see the passwd(5) man page.

protocols

Network protocols, used by getprotoent; see the protocols(5) man page.

rpc

Remote procedure call names and addresses, used by getrpcbyname and similar functions.

services

Network services, used by getservent.

shadow

Shadow passwords of users, used by getspnam; see the shadow(5) man page.

Table 13.4: Configuration Options for NSS Databases

files

directly access files, for example, /etc/aliases

db

access via a database

nis, nisplus

NIS, see also Book “Security Guide”, Chapter 3 “Using NIS”

dns

can only be used as an extension for hosts and networks

compat

can only be used as an extension for passwd, shadow and group

13.6.2.14 /etc/nscd.conf

This file is used to configure nscd (name service cache daemon). See the nscd(8) and nscd.conf(5) man pages. By default, the system entries of passwd, groups and hostsare cached by nscd. This is important for the performance of directory services, like NIS and LDAP, because otherwise the network connection needs to be used for every access to names, groups or hosts.

If the caching for passwd is activated, it usually takes about fifteen seconds until a newly added local user is recognized. Reduce this waiting time by restarting nscd with:

systemctl restart nscd

13.6.2.15 /etc/HOSTNAME

/etc/HOSTNAME contains the fully qualified host name (FQHN). The fully qualified host name is the host name with the domain name attached. This file must contain only one line (in which the host name is set). It is read while the machine is booting.

13.6.3 Testing the Configuration

Before you write your configuration to the configuration files, you can test it. To set up a test configuration, use the ip command. To test the connection, use the ping command.

The command ip changes the network configuration directly without saving it in the configuration file. Unless you enter your configuration in the correct configuration files, the changed network configuration is lost on reboot.

Note
Note: ifconfig and route Are Obsolete

The ifconfig and route tools are obsolete. Use ip instead. ifconfig, for example, limits interface names to 9 characters.

13.6.3.1 Configuring a Network Interface with ip

ip is a tool to show and configure network devices, routing, policy routing, and tunnels.

ip is a very complex tool. Its common syntax is ip OPTIONS OBJECT COMMAND. You can work with the following objects:

link

This object represents a network device.

address

This object represents the IP address of device.

neighbor

This object represents an ARP or NDISC cache entry.

route

This object represents the routing table entry.

rule

This object represents a rule in the routing policy database.

maddress

This object represents a multicast address.

mroute

This object represents a multicast routing cache entry.

tunnel

This object represents a tunnel over IP.

If no command is given, the default command is used (usually list).

Change the state of a device with the command ip link set DEVICE_NAME  . For example, to deactivate device eth0, enter ip link set eth0 down. To activate it again, use ip link set eth0 up.

After activating a device, you can configure it. To set the IP address, use ip addr add IP_ADDRESS + dev DEVICE_NAME. For example, to set the address of the interface eth0 to 192.168.12.154/30 with standard broadcast (option brd), enter ip addr add 192.168.12.154/30 brd + dev eth0.

To have a working connection, you must also configure the default gateway. To set a gateway for your system, enter ip route add gateway_ip_address. To translate one IP address to another, use nat: ip route add nat ip_address via other_ip_address.

To display all devices, use ip link ls. To display the running interfaces only, use ip link ls up. To print interface statistics for a device, enter ip -s link ls device_name. To view addresses of your devices, enter ip addr. In the output of the ip addr, also find information about MAC addresses of your devices. To show all routes, use ip route show.

For more information about using ip, enter ip help or see the ip(8) man page. The help option is also available for all ip subcommands. If, for example, you need help for ip addr, enter ip addr help. Find the ip manual in /usr/share/doc/packages/iproute2/ip-cref.pdf.

13.6.3.2 Testing a Connection with ping

The ping command is the standard tool for testing whether a TCP/IP connection works. It uses the ICMP protocol to send a small data packet, ECHO_REQUEST datagram, to the destination host, requesting an immediate reply. If this works, ping displays a message to that effect. This indicates that the network link is functioning.

ping does more than only test the function of the connection between two computers: it also provides some basic information about the quality of the connection. In Example 13.11, “Output of the Command ping”, you can see an example of the ping output. The second-to-last line contains information about the number of transmitted packets, packet loss, and total time of ping running.

As the destination, you can use a host name or IP address, for example, ping example.com or ping 192.168.3.100. The program sends packets until you press CtrlC.

If you only need to check the functionality of the connection, you can limit the number of the packets with the -c option. For example to limit ping to three packets, enter ping -c 3 example.com.

Example 13.11: Output of the Command ping
ping -c 3 example.com
PING example.com (192.168.3.100) 56(84) bytes of data.
64 bytes from example.com (192.168.3.100): icmp_seq=1 ttl=49 time=188 ms
64 bytes from example.com (192.168.3.100): icmp_seq=2 ttl=49 time=184 ms
64 bytes from example.com (192.168.3.100): icmp_seq=3 ttl=49 time=183 ms
--- example.com ping statistics ---
3 packets transmitted, 3 received, 0% packet loss, time 2007ms
rtt min/avg/max/mdev = 183.417/185.447/188.259/2.052 ms

The default interval between two packets is one second. To change the interval, ping provides the option -i. For example, to increase the ping interval to ten seconds, enter ping -i 10 example.com.

In a system with multiple network devices, it is sometimes useful to send the ping through a specific interface address. To do so, use the -I option with the name of the selected device, for example, ping -I wlan1 example.com.

For more options and information about using ping, enter ping -h or see the ping (8) man page.

Tip
Tip: Pinging IPv6 Addresses

For IPv6 addresses use the ping6 command. Note, to ping link-local addresses, you must specify the interface with -I. The following command works, if the address is reachable via eth1:

ping6 -I eth1 fe80::117:21ff:feda:a425

13.6.4 Unit Files and Start-Up Scripts

Apart from the configuration files described above, there are also systemd unit files and various scripts that load the network services while the machine is booting. These are started when the system is switched to the multi-user.target target. Some of these unit files and scripts are described in Some Unit Files and Start-Up Scripts for Network Programs. For more information about systemd, see Chapter 10, The systemd Daemon and for more information about the systemd targets, see the man page of systemd.special (man systemd.special).

Some Unit Files and Start-Up Scripts for Network Programs
network.target

network.target is the systemd target for networking, but its mean depends on the settings provided by the system administrator.

For more information, see http://www.freedesktop.org/wiki/Software/systemd/NetworkTarget/.

multi-user.target

multi-user.target is the systemd target for a multiuser system with all required network services.

xinetd

Starts xinetd. xinetd can be used to make server services available on the system. For example, it can start vsftpd whenever an FTP connection is initiated.

rpcbind

Starts the rpcbind utility that converts RPC program numbers to universal addresses. It is needed for RPC services, such as an NFS server.

ypserv

Starts the NIS server.

ypbind

Starts the NIS client.

/etc/init.d/nfsserver

Starts the NFS server.

/etc/init.d/postfix

Controls the postfix process.

13.7 Basic Router Setup

A router is a networking device that delivers and receives data (network packets) to or from more than one network back and forth. You often use a router to connect your local network to the remote network (Internet) or to connect local network segments. With openSUSE Leap you can build a router with features such as NAT (Network Address Translation) or advanced firewalling.

The following are basic steps to turn openSUSE Leap into a router.

  1. Enable forwarding, for example in /etc/sysctl.d/50-router.conf

    net.ipv4.conf.all.forwarding = 1
    net.ipv6.conf.all.forwarding = 1

    Then provide a static IPv4 and IPv6 IP setup for the interfaces. Enabling forwarding disables several mechanisms, for example IPv6 does not accept an IPv6 RA (router advertisement) anymore, which also prevents the creation of a default route.

  2. In many situations, such as when you can reach the same (internal) network via more than one interface, or when VPN usually is used (and already on normal multi-home hosts), you must disable the IPv4 reverse path filter (this feature does not currently exist for IPv6):

    net.ipv4.conf.all.rp_filter = 0

    You can also filter with firewall settings instead.

  3. To accept an IPv6 RA (from the router on an external, uplink, or ISP interface) and create a default (or also a more specific) IPv6 route again, set:

    net.ipv6.conf.${ifname}.accept_ra = 2
    net.ipv6.conf.${ifname}.autoconf = 0

    (Note: eth0.42 needs to be written as eth0/42 in a dot-separated sysfs path.)

More router behavior and forwarding dependencies are described in https://www.kernel.org/doc/Documentation/networking/ip-sysctl.txt.

To provide IPv6 on your internal (DMZ) interfaces, and announce yourself as an IPv6 router and autoconf networks to the clients, install and configure radvd in /etc/radvd.conf, for example:

interface eth0
{
    IgnoreIfMissing on;         # do not fail if interface missed

    AdvSendAdvert on;           # enable sending RAs
    AdvManagedFlag on;          # IPv6 addresses managed via DHCPv6
    AdvOtherConfigFlag on;      # DNS, NTP... only via DHCPv6

    AdvDefaultLifetime 3600;    # client default route lifetime of 1 hour

    prefix 2001:db8:0:1::/64    # (/64 is default and required for autoconf)
    {
        AdvAutonomous off;         # Disable address autoconf (DHCPv6 only)

        AdvValidLifetime 3600;     # prefix (autoconf addr) is valid 1 h
        AdvPreferredLifetime 1800; # prefix (autoconf addr) is prefered 1/2 h
    }
}

Lastly configure the firewall. In SuSEfirewall2, you need to set FW_ROUTE="yes" (otherwise it will also reset forwarding sysctl again) and define the interfaces in the FW_DEV_INT, FW_DEV_EXT (and FW_DEV_DMZ) zone variables as needed, perhaps also FW_MASQUERADE="yes" and FW_MASQ_DEV.

13.8 Setting Up Bonding Devices

For some systems, there is a desire to implement network connections that comply to more than the standard data security or availability requirements of a typical Ethernet device. In these cases, several Ethernet devices can be aggregated to a single bonding device.

The configuration of the bonding device is done by means of bonding module options. The behavior is mainly affected by the mode of the bonding device. By default, this is mode=active-backup which means that a different slave device will become active if the active slave fails.

Tip
Tip: Bonding and Xen

Using bonding devices is only of interest for machines where you have multiple real network cards available. In most configurations, this means that you should use the bonding configuration only in Dom0. Only if you have multiple network cards assigned to a VM Guest system it may also be useful to set up the bond in a VM Guest.

To configure a bonding device, use the following procedure:

  1. Run YaST › System › Network Settings.

  2. Use Add and change the Device Type to Bond. Proceed with Next.

  3. Select how to assign the IP address to the bonding device. Three methods are at your disposal:

    • No IP Address

    • Dynamic Address (with DHCP or Zeroconf)

    • Statically assigned IP Address

    Use the method that is appropriate for your environment.

  4. In the Bond Slaves tab, select the Ethernet devices that should be included into the bond by activating the related check box.

  5. Edit the Bond Driver Options. The modes that are available for configuration are the following:

    • balance-rr

    • active-backup

    • balance-xor

    • broadcast

    • 802.3ad

      802.3ad is the standardized LACP IEEE 802.3ad Dynamic link aggregation mode.

    • balance-tlb

    • balance-alb

  6. Make sure that the parameter miimon=100 is added to the Bond Driver Options. Without this parameter, the data integrity is not checked regularly.

  7. Click Next and leave YaST with OK to create the device.

All modes, and many more options are explained in detail in the Linux Ethernet Bonding Driver HOWTO found at /usr/src/linux/Documentation/networking/bonding.txt after installing the package kernel-source.

13.8.1 Hotplugging of Bonding Slaves

In specific network environments (such as High Availability), there are cases when you need to replace a bonding slave interface with another one. The reason may be a constantly failing network device. The solution is to set up hotplugging of bonding slaves.

The bond is configured as usual (according to man 5 ifcfg-bonding), for example:

ifcfg-bond0
          STARTMODE='auto' # or 'onboot'
          BOOTPROTO='static'
          IPADDR='192.168.0.1/24'
          BONDING_MASTER='yes'
          BONDING_SLAVE_0='eth0'
          BONDING_SLAVE_1='eth1'
          BONDING_MODULE_OPTS='mode=active-backup miimon=100'

The slaves are specified with STARTMODE=hotplug and BOOTPROTO=none:

ifcfg-eth0
          STARTMODE='hotplug'
          BOOTPROTO='none'

ifcfg-eth1
          STARTMODE='hotplug'
          BOOTPROTO='none'

BOOTPROTO=none uses the ethtool options (when provided), but does not set the link up on ifup eth0. The reason is that the slave interface is controlled by the bond master.

STARTMODE=hotplug causes the slave interface to join the bond automatically when it is available.

The udev rules in /etc/udev/rules.d/70-persistent-net.rules need to be changed to match the device by bus ID (udev KERNELS keyword equal to "SysFS BusID" as visible in hwinfo --netcard) instead of by MAC address to allow to replacement of defective hardware (a network card in the same slot but with a different MAC), and to avoid confusion as the bond changes the MAC address of all its slaves.

For example:

SUBSYSTEM=="net", ACTION=="add", DRIVERS=="?*",
KERNELS=="0000:00:19.0", ATTR{dev_id}=="0x0", ATTR{type}=="1",
KERNEL=="eth*", NAME="eth0"

At boot time, the systemd network.service does not wait for the hotplug slaves, but for the bond to become ready, which requires at least one available slave. When one of the slave interfaces gets removed (unbind from NIC driver, rmmod of the NIC driver or true PCI hotplug remove) from the system, the kernel removes it from the bond automatically. When a new card is added to the system (replacement of the hardware in the slot), udev renames it using the bus-based persistent name rule to the name of the slave, and calls ifup for it. The ifup call automatically joins it into the bond.

13.9 Setting Up Team Devices for Network Teaming

The term link aggregation is the general term which describes combining (or aggregating) a network connection to provide a logical layer. Sometimes you find the terms channel teaming, Ethernet bonding, port truncating, etc. which are synonyms and refer to the same concept.

This concept is widely known as bonding and was originally integrated into the Linux kernel (see Section 13.8, “Setting Up Bonding Devices” for the original implementation). The term Network Teaming is used to refer to the new implementation of this concept.

The main difference between bonding and Network Teaming is that teaming supplies a set of small kernel modules which are responsible for providing an interface for teamd instances. Everything else is handled in user space. This is different from the original bonding implementation which contains all of its functionality exclusively in the kernel. For a comparison refer to Table 13.5, “Feature Comparison between Bonding and Team”.

Table 13.5: Feature Comparison between Bonding and Team
FeatureBondingTeam
Source: http://libteam.org/files/teamdev.pp.pdf
broadcast, round-robin TX policyyesyes
active-backup TX policyyesyes
LACP (802.3ad) supportyesyes
hash-based TX policyyesyes
user can set hash functionnoyes
TX load-balancing support (TLB)yesyes
TX load-balancing support for LACPnoyes
Ethtool link monitoringyesyes
ARP link monitoringyesyes
NS/NA (IPV6) link monitoringnoyes
RCU locking on TX/RX pathsnoyes
port prio and stickinessnoyes
separate per-port link monitoring setupnoyes
multiple link monitoring setuplimitedyes
VLAN supportyesyes
multiple device stackingyesyes

Both implementations, bonding and Network Teaming, can be used in parallel. Network Teaming is an alternative to the existing bonding implementation. It does not replace bonding.

Network Teaming can be used for different use cases. The two most important use cases are explained later and involve:

  • Load balancing between different network devices.

  • Failover from one network device to another in case one of the devices should fail.

Currently, there is no YaST module to support creating a teaming device. You need to configure Network Teaming manually. The general procedure is shown below which can be applied for all your Network Teaming configurations:

Procedure 13.1: General Procedure
  1. Make sure you have all the necessary packages installed. Install the packages libteam-tools, libteamdctl0, and python-libteam.

  2. Create a configuration file under /etc/sysconfig/network/. Usually it will be ifcfg-team0. If you need more than one Network Teaming device, give them ascending numbers.

    This configuration file contains several variables which are explained in the man pages (see man ifcfg and man ifcfg-team). An example configuration can be found in your system in the file /etc/sysconfig/network/ifcfg.template.

  3. Remove the configuration files of the interfaces which will be used for the teaming device (usually ifcfg-eth0 and ifcfg-eth1).

    It is recommended to make a backup and remove both files. Wicked will re-create the configuration files with the necessary parameters for teaming.

  4. Optionally, check if everything is included in Wicked's configuration file:

    wicked show-config
  5. Start the Network Teaming device team0:

    wicked ifup all team0

    In case you need additional debug information, use the option --debug all after the all subcommand.

  6. Check the status of the Network Teaming device. This can be done by the following commands:

    • Get the state of the teamd instance from Wicked:

      wicked ifstatus --verbose team0
    • Get the state of the entire instance:

      teamdctl team0 state
    • Get the systemd state of the teamd instance:

      systemctl status teamd@team0

    Each of them shows a slightly different view depending on your needs.

  7. In case you need to change something in the ifcfg-team0 file afterward, reload its configuration with:

    wicked ifreload team0

Do not use systemctl for starting or stopping the teaming device! Instead, use the wicked command as shown above.

If you want to completely remove the team device, use this procedure:

Procedure 13.2: Removing a Team Device
  1. Stop the Network Teaming device team0:

    wicked ifdown team0
  2. Rename the file /etc/sysconfig/network/ifcfg-team0 to /etc/sysconfig/network/.ifcfg-team0. Inserting a dot in front of the file name makes it invisible for wicked. If you really do not need the configuration anymore, you can also remove the file.

  3. Reload the configuration:

    wicked ifreload all

13.9.1 Use Case: Loadbalancing with Network Teaming

Loadbalancing is used to improve bandwidth. Use the following configuration file to create a Network Teaming device with loadbalancing capabilities. Proceed with Procedure 13.1, “General Procedure” to set up the device. Check the output with teamdctl.

Example 13.12: Configuration for Loadbalancing with Network Teaming
STARTMODE=auto 1
BOOTPROTO=static 2
IPADDRESS="192.168.1.1/24" 2
IPADDR6="fd00:deca:fbad:50::1/64" 2

TEAM_RUNNER="loadbalance" 3
TEAM_LB_TX_HASH="ipv4,ipv6,eth,vlan"
TEAM_LB_TX_BALANCER_NAME="basic"
TEAM_LB_TX_BALANCER_INTERVAL="100"

TEAM_PORT_DEVICE_0="eth0" 4
TEAM_PORT_DEVICE_1="eth1" 4

TEAM_LW_NAME="ethtool" 5
TEAM_LW_ETHTOOL_DELAY_UP="10" 6
TEAM_LW_ETHTOOL_DELAY_DOWN="10" 6

1

Controls the start of the teaming device. The value of auto means, the interface will be set up when the network service is available and will be started automatically on every reboot.

In case you need to control the device yourself (and prevent it from starting automatically), set STARTMODE to manual.

2

Sets a static IP address (here 192.168.1.1 for IPv4 and fd00:deca:fbad:50::1 for IPv6).

If the Network Teaming device should use a dynamic IP address, set BOOTPROTO="dhcp" and remove (or comment) the line with IPADDRESS and IPADDR6.

3

Sets TEAM_RUNNER to loadbalance to activate the loadbalancing mode.

4

Specifies one or more devices which should be aggregated to create the Network Teaming device.

5

Defines a link watcher to monitor the state of subordinate devices. The default value ethtool checks only if the device is up and accessible. This makes this check fast enough. However, it does not check if the device can really send or receive packets.

If you need a higher confidence in the connection, use the arp_ping option. This sends pings to an arbitrary host (configured in the TEAM_LW_ARP_PING_TARGET_HOST variable). Only if the replies are received, the Network Teaming device is considered to be up.

6

Defines the delay in milliseconds between the link coming up (or down) and the runner being notified.

13.9.2 Use Case: Failover with Network Teaming

Failover is used to ensure high availability of a critical Network Teaming device by involving a parallel backup network device. The backup network device is running all the time and takes over if and when the main device fails.

Use the following configuration file to create a Network Teaming device with failover capabilities. Proceed with Procedure 13.1, “General Procedure” to set up the device. Check the output with teamdctl.

Example 13.13: Configuration for DHCP Network Teaming Device
STARTMODE=auto 1
BOOTPROTO=static 2
IPADDR="192.168.1.2/24" 2
IPADDR6="fd00:deca:fbad:50::2/64" 2

TEAM_RUNNER=activebackup 3
TEAM_PORT_DEVICE_0="eth0" 4
TEAM_PORT_DEVICE_1="eth1" 4

TEAM_LW_NAME=ethtool 5
TEAM_LW_ETHTOOL_DELAY_UP="10" 6
TEAM_LW_ETHTOOL_DELAY_DOWN="10" 6

1

Controls the start of the teaming device. The value of auto means, the interface will be set up when the network service is available and will be started automatically on every reboot.

In case you need to control the device yourself (and prevent it from starting automatically), set STARTMODE to manual.

2

Sets a static IP address (here 192.168.1.2 for IPv4 and fd00:deca:fbad:50::2 for IPv6).

If the Network Teaming device should use a dynamic IP address, set BOOTPROTO="dhcp" and remove (or comment) the line with IPADDRESS and IPADDR6.

3

Sets TEAM_RUNNER to activebackup to activate the failover mode.

4

Specifies one or more devices which should be aggregated to create the Network Teaming device.

5

Defines a link watcher to monitor the state of subordinate devices. The default value ethtool checks only if the device is up and accessible. This makes this check fast enough. However, it does not check if the device can really send or receive packets.

If you need a higher confidence in the connection, use the arp_ping option. This sends pings to an arbitrary host (configured in the TEAM_LW_ARP_PING_TARGET_HOST variable). Only if the replies are received, the Network Teaming device is considered to be up.

6

Defines the delay in milliseconds between the link coming up (or down) and the runner being notified.

13.9.3 Use Case: VLAN over Team Device

VLAN is an abbreviation of Virtual Local Area Network. It allows the running of multiple logical (virtual) ethernets over one single physical ethernet. It logically splits the network into different broadcast domains so that packets are only switched between ports that are designated for the same VLAN.

The following use case creates two static VLANs on top of a team device:

  • vlan0, bound to the IP address 192.168.10.1

  • vlan1, bound to the IP address 192.168.20.1

Proceed as follows:

  1. Enable the VLAN tags on your switch. If you want to use loadbalancing for your team device, your switch needs to be capable of Link Aggregation Control Protocol (LACP) (802.3ad). Consult your hardware manual about the details.

  2. Decide if you want to use loadbalancing or failover for your team device. Set up your team device as described in Section 13.9.1, “Use Case: Loadbalancing with Network Teaming” or Section 13.9.2, “Use Case: Failover with Network Teaming”.

  3. In /etc/sysconfig/network create a file ifcfg-vlan0 with the following content:

    STARTMODE="auto"
    BOOTPROTO="static" 1
    IPADDR='192.168.10.1/24' 2
    ETHERDEVICE="team0" 3
    VLAN_ID="0" 4
    VLAN='yes'

    1

    Defines a fixed IP address, specified in IPADDR.

    2

    Defines the IP address, here with its netmask.

    3

    Contains the real interface to use for the VLAN interface, here our team device (team0).

    4

    Specifies a unique ID for the VLAN. Preferably, the file name and the VLAN_ID corresponds to the name ifcfg-vlanVLAN_ID. In our case VLAN_ID is 0 which leads to the filename ifcfg-vlan0.

  4. Copy the file /etc/sysconfig/network/ifcfg-vlan0 to /etc/sysconfig/network/ifcfg-vlan1 and change the following values:

    • IPADDR from 192.168.10.1/24 to 192.168.20.1/24.

    • VLAN_ID from 0 to 1.

  5. Start the two VLANs:

    root # wicked ifup vlan0 vlan1
  6. Check the output of ifconfig:

    root # ifconfig -a
    [...]
    vlan0     Link encap:Ethernet  HWaddr 08:00:27:DC:43:98
              inet addr:192.168.10.1 Bcast:192.168.10.255 Mask:255.255.255.0
              inet6 addr: fe80::a00:27ff:fedc:4398/64 Scope:Link
              UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST  MTU:1500  Metric:1
              RX packets:0 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
              TX packets:12 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
              collisions:0 txqueuelen:1000
              RX bytes:0 (0.0 b)  TX bytes:816 (816.0 b)
    
    vlan1     Link encap:Ethernet  HWaddr 08:00:27:DC:43:98
              inet addr:192.168.20.1 Bcast:192.168.20.255 Mask:255.255.255.0
              inet6 addr: fe80::a00:27ff:fedc:4398/64 Scope:Link
              UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST  MTU:1500  Metric:1
              RX packets:0 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
              TX packets:12 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
              collisions:0 txqueuelen:1000
              RX bytes:0 (0.0 b)  TX bytes:816 (816.0 b)

13.10 Software-Defined Networking with Open vSwitch

Software-defined networking (SDN) means separating the system that controls where traffic is sent (the control plane) from the underlying system that forwards traffic to the selected destination (the data plane, also called the forwarding plane). This means that the functions previously fulfilled by a single, usually inflexible switch can now be separated between a switch (data plane) and its controller (control plane). In this model, the controller is programmable and can be very flexible and adapt quickly to changing network conditions.

Open vSwitch is software that implements a distributed virtual multilayer switch that is compatible with the OpenFlow protocol. OpenFlow allows a controller application to modify the configuration of a switch. OpenFlow is layered onto the TCP protocol and is implemented in a range of hardware and software. A single controller can thus drive multiple, very different switches.

13.10.1 Advantages of Open vSwitch

Software-defined networking with Open vSwitch brings several advantages with it, especially when you used together with virtual machines:

  • Networking states can be identified easily.

  • Networks and their live state can be moved from one host to another.

  • Network dynamics are traceable and external software can be enabled to respond to them.

  • You can apply and manipulate tags in network packets to identify which machine they are coming from or going to and maintain other networking context. Tagging rules can be configured and migrated.

  • Open vSwitch implements the GRE protocol (Generic Routing Encapsulation). This allows you, for example, to connect private VM networks to each other.

  • Open vSwitch can be used on its own, but is designed to integrate with networking hardware and can control hardware switches.

13.10.2 Installing Open vSwitch

  1. Install Open vSwitch and supplementary packages:

    root # zypper install openvswitch openvswitch-switch

    If you plan to use Open vSwitch together with the KVM hypervisor, additionally install tunctl . If you plan to use Open vSwitch together with the Xen hypervisor, additionally install openvswitch-kmp-xen .

  2. Enable the Open vSwitch service:

    root # systemctl enable openvswitch
  3. Either restart the computer or use systemctl to start the Open vSwitch service immediately:

    root # systemctl start openvswitch
  4. To check whether Open vSwitch was activated correctly, use:

    root # systemctl status openvswitch

13.10.3 Overview of Open vSwitch Daemons and Utilities

Open vSwitch consists of several components. Among them are a kernel module and various user space components. The kernel module is used for accelerating the data path, but is not necessary for a minimal Open vSwitch installation.

13.10.3.1 Daemons

The central executables of Open vSwitch are its two daemons. When you start the openvswitch service, you are indirectly starting them.

The main Open vSwitch daemon (ovs-vswitchd) provides the implementation of a switch. The Open vSwitch database daemon (ovsdb-server) serves the database that stores the configuration and state of Open vSwitch.

13.10.3.2 Utilities

Open vSwitch also comes with several utilities that help you work with it. The following list is not exhaustive, but instead describes important commands only.

ovsdb-tool

Create, upgrade, compact, and query Open vSwitch databases. Do transactions on Open vSwitch databases.

ovs-appctl

Configure a running ovs-vswitchd or ovsdb-server daemon.

ovs-dpctl, ovs-dpctl-top

Create, modify, visualize, and delete data paths. Using this tool can interfere with ovs-vswitchd also performing data path management. Therefore, it is often used for diagnostics only.

ovs-dpctl-top creates a top-like visualization for data paths.

ovs-ofctl

Manage any switches adhering to the OpenFlow protocol. ovs-ofctl is not limited to interacting with Open vSwitch.

ovs-vsctl

Provides a high-level interface to the configuration database. It can be used to query and modify the database. In effect, it shows the status of ovs-vswitchd and can be used to configure it.

13.10.4 Creating a Bridge with Open vSwitch

The following example configuration uses the Wicked network service that is used by default on openSUSE Leap. To learn more about Wicked, see Section 13.6, “Configuring a Network Connection Manually”.

When you have installed and started Open vSwitch, proceed as follows:

  1. To configure a bridge for use by your virtual machine, create a file with content like this:

    STARTMODE='auto'1
    BOOTPROTO='dhcp'2
    OVS_BRIDGE='yes'3
    OVS_BRIDGE_PORT_DEVICE_1='eth0'4

    1

    Set up the bridge automatically when the network service is started.

    2

    The protocol to use for configuring the IP address.

    3

    Mark the configuration as an Open vSwitch bridge.

    4

    Choose which device/devices should be added to the bridge. To add more devices, append additional lines for each of them to the file:

    OVS_BRIDGE_PORT_DEVICE_SUFFIX='DEVICE'

    The SUFFIX can be any alphanumeric string. However, to avoid overwriting a previous definition, make sure the SUFFIX of each device is unique.

    Save the file in the directory /etc/sysconfig/network under the name ifcfg-br0. Instead of br0, you can use any name you want. However, the file name needs to begin with ifcfg-.

    To learn about further options, refer to the man pages of ifcfg (man 5 ifcfg) and ifcfg-ovs-bridge (man 5 ifcfg-ovs-bridge).

  2. Now start the bridge:

    root # wicked ifup br0

    When Wicked is done, it should output the name of the bridge and next to it the state up.

13.10.5 Using Open vSwitch Directly with KVM

After having created the bridge as described before in Section 13.10.4, “Creating a Bridge with Open vSwitch, you can use Open vSwitch to manage the network access of virtual machines created with KVM/QEMU.

  1. To be able to best use the capabilities of Wicked, make some further changes to the bridge configured before. Open the previously created /etc/sysconfig/network/ifcfg-br0 and append a line for another port device:

    OVS_BRIDGE_PORT_DEVICE_2='tap0'

    Additionally, set BOOTPROTO to none. The file should now look like this:

    STARTMODE='auto'
    BOOTPROTO='none'
    OVS_BRIDGE='yes'
    OVS_BRIDGE_PORT_DEVICE_1='eth0'
    OVS_BRIDGE_PORT_DEVICE_2='tap0'

    The new port device tap0 will be configured in the next step.

  2. Now add a configuration file for the tap0 device:

    STARTMODE='auto'
    BOOTPROTO='none'
    TUNNEL='tap'

    Save the file in the directory /etc/sysconfig/network under the name ifcfg-tap0.

    Tip
    Tip: Allowing Other Users to Access the Tap Device

    To be able to use this tap device from a virtual machine started as a user who is not root, append:

    TUNNEL_SET_OWNER=USER_NAME

    To allow access for an entire group, append:

    TUNNEL_SET_GROUP=GROUP_NAME
  3. Finally, open the configuration for the device defined as the first OVS_BRIDGE_PORT_DEVICE. If you did not change the name, that should be eth0. Therefore, open /etc/sysconfig/network/ifcfg-eth0 and make sure that the following options are set:

    STARTMODE='auto'
    BOOTPROTO='none'

    If the file does not exist yet, create it.

  4. Restart the bridge interface using Wicked:

    root # wicked ifreload br0

    This will also trigger a reload of the newly defined bridge port devices.

  5. To start a virtual machine, use, for example:

    root # qemu-kvm \
    -drive file=/PATH/TO/DISK-IMAGE1 \
    -m 512 -net nic,vlan=0,macaddr=00:11:22:EE:EE:EE \
    -net tap,ifname=tap0,script=no,downscript=no2

    1

    The path to the QEMU disk image you want to start.

    2

    Use the tap device (tap0) created before.

    For further information on the usage of KVM/QEMU, see Book “Virtualization Guide.

13.10.6 Using Open vSwitch with libvirt

After having created the bridge as described before in Section 13.10.4, “Creating a Bridge with Open vSwitch, you can add the bridge to an existing virtual machine managed with libvirt. Since libvirt has some support for Open vSwitch bridges already, you can use the bridge created in Section 13.10.4, “Creating a Bridge with Open vSwitch without further changes to the networking configuration.

  1. Open the domain XML file for the intended virtual machine:

    root # virsh edit VM_NAME

    Replace VM_NAME with the name of the desired virtual machine. This will open your default text editor.

  2. Find the networking section of the document by looking for a section starting with <interface type="..."> and ending in </interface>.

    Replace the existing section with a networking section that looks somewhat like this:

    <interface type='bridge'>
      <source bridge='br0'/>
      <virtualport type='openvswitch'/>
    </interface>
    Important
    Important: Compatibility of virsh iface-* and Virtual Machine Manager with Open vSwitch

    At the moment, the Open vSwitch compatibility of libvirt is not exposed through the virsh iface-* tools and Virtual Machine Manager. If you use any of these tools, your configuration can break.

  3. You can now start or restart the virtual machine as usual.

For further information on the usage of libvirt, see Book “Virtualization Guide.

13.10.7 For More Information

http://openvswitch.org/support/

The documentation section of the Open vSwitch project Web site

https://www.opennetworking.org/images/stories/downloads/sdn-resources/white-papers/wp-sdn-newnorm.pdf

Whitepaper by the Open Networking Foundation about software-defined networking and the OpenFlow protocol