Applies to openSUSE Leap 15

30 AppArmor Glossary

Abstraction

See profile foundation classes below.

Apache

Apache is a freely-available Unix-based Web server. It is currently the most commonly used Web server on the Internet. Find more information about Apache at the Apache Web site at http://www.apache.org.

application fire-walling

AppArmor confines applications and limits the actions they are permitted to take. It uses privilege confinement to prevent attackers from using malicious programs on the protected server and even using trusted applications in unintended ways.

attack signature

Pattern in system or network activity that alerts of a possible virus or hacker attack. Intrusion detection systems might use attack signatures to distinguish between legitimate and potentially malicious activity.

By not relying on attack signatures, AppArmor provides "proactive" instead of "reactive" defense from attacks. This is better because there is no window of vulnerability where the attack signature must be defined for AppArmor as it does for products using attack signatures.

GUI

Graphical user interface. Refers to a software front-end meant to provide an attractive and easy-to-use interface between a computer user and application. Its elements include windows, icons, buttons, cursors, and scrollbars.

globbing

File name substitution. Instead of specifying explicit file name paths, you can use helper characters * (substitutes any number of characters except special ones such as / or ?) and ? (substitutes exactly one character) to address multiple files/directories at once. ** is a special substitution that matches any file or directory below the current directory.

HIP

Host intrusion prevention. Works with the operating system kernel to block abnormal application behavior in the expectation that the abnormal behavior represents an unknown attack. Blocks malicious packets on the host at the network level before they can hurt the application they target.

mandatory access control

A means of restricting access to objects that is based on fixed security attributes assigned to users, files, and other objects. The controls are mandatory in the sense that they cannot be modified by users or their programs.

profile

AppArmor profile completely defines what system resources an individual application can access, and with what privileges.

profile foundation classes

Profile building blocks needed for common application activities, such as DNS lookup and user authentication.

RPM

The RPM Package Manager. An open packaging system available for anyone to use. It works on Red Hat Linux, openSUSE Leap, and other Linux and Unix systems. It is capable of installing, uninstalling, verifying, querying, and updating computer software packages. See http://www.rpm.org/ for more information.

SSH

Secure Shell. A service that allows you to access your server from a remote computer and issue text commands through a secure connection.

streamlined access control

AppArmor provides streamlined access control for network services by specifying which files each program is allowed to read, write, and execute. This ensures that each program does what it is supposed to do and nothing else.

URI

Universal resource identifier. The generic term for all types of names and addresses that refer to objects on the World Wide Web. A URL is one kind of URI.

URL

Uniform Resource Locator. The global address of documents and other resources on the Web.

The first part of the address indicates what protocol to use and the second part specifies the IP address or the domain name where the resource is located.

For example, when you visit http://www.opensuse.org, you are using the HTTP protocol, as the beginning of the URL indicates.

vulnerabilities

An aspect of a system or network that leaves it open to attack. Characteristics of computer systems that allow an individual to keep it from correctly operating or that allows unauthorized users to take control of the system. Design, administrative, or implementation weaknesses or flaws in hardware, firmware, or software. If exploited, a vulnerability could lead to an unacceptable impact in the form of unauthorized access to information or the disruption of critical processing.

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