Applies to openSUSE Leap 42.1

2 Installation with YaST

Abstract

Install your openSUSE® Leap system with YaST, the central tool for installation and configuration of your system. YaST guides you through the installation process of your system. If you are a first-time user of openSUSE Leap, you might want to follow the default YaST proposals in most parts, but you can also adjust the settings as described here to fine-tune your system according to your preferences. Help for each installation step is provided by clicking Help.

During the installation process, YaST analyzes both your current system settings and your hardware components. Based on this analysis your system will be set up with a basic configuration including networking (provided the system could be configured using DHCP). To fine-tune the system after the installation has finished, start YaST from the installed system.

2.1 Choosing the Installation Method

After having selected the installation medium, determine the suitable installation method and boot option that best matches your needs:

Installing from the openSUSE Leap Media (DVD, USB)

Choose this option if you want to perform a stand-alone installation and do not want to rely on a network to provide the installation data or the boot infrastructure. The installation proceeds exactly as outlined in Section 2.3, “The Installation Workflow”.

Installing from a Network Server

Choose this option if you have an installation server available in your network or want to use an external server as the source of your installation data. This setup can be configured to boot from physical media (flash disk, CD/DVD, or hard disk) or configured to boot via network using PXE/BOOTP. Refer to Section 2.2, “System Start-up for Installation” for details.

The installation program configures the network connection with DHCP and retrieves the location of the network installation source from the OpenSLP server. If no DHCP is available, choose F4 Source › Network Config › Manual and enter the network data. On EFI systems modify the network boot parameters as described in Section 2.2.1.2, “The Boot Screen on Machines Equipped with UEFI”.

Installing from an SLP Server.  If your network setup supports OpenSLP and your network installation source has been configured to announce itself via SLP, boot the system, press F4 in the boot screen and select SLP from the menu. On EFI systems set the install parameter to install=slp:/ as described in Section 2.2.1.2, “The Boot Screen on Machines Equipped with UEFI”.

Installing from a Network Source without SLP.  If your network setup does not support OpenSLP for the retrieval of network installation sources, boot the system and press F4 in the boot screen to select the desired network protocol (NFS, HTTP, FTP, or SMB/CIFS) and provide the server's address and the path to the installation media. On EFI systems modify the boot parameter install= as described in Section 2.2.1.2, “The Boot Screen on Machines Equipped with UEFI”.

2.2 System Start-up for Installation

The way the system is started for the installation depends on the architecture—system start-up is different for PC (x86_64) or mainframe, for example. If you install openSUSE Leap as a VM Guest on a KVM or Xen hypervisor, follow the instructions for the x86_64 architecture.

2.2.1 PC (x86_64): System Start-up

openSUSE Leap supports several different boot options from which you can choose, depending on the hardware available and on the installation scenario you prefer. Booting from the openSUSE Leap media is the most straightforward option, but special requirements might call for special setups:

Table 2.1: Boot Options

Boot Option

Description

DVD

This is the easiest boot option. This option can be used if the system has a local DVD-ROM drive that is supported by Linux.

USB Mass Storage Device

In case your machine is not equipped with an optical drive, you can boot the installation image from a USB mass storage device such as a flash disk. To create a bootable USB storage device, you need to copy either the DVD or the Mini CD iso image to the device using the dd command (the USB device must not be mounted, all data on the device will be erased):

dd if=PATH_TO_ISO_IMAGE of=USB_STORAGE_DEVICE bs=4M
Important
Important: Compatibility

Note that booting from a USB Mass Storage Device is not supported on UEFI machines (this includes the complete ia64 architecture) and on the ppc64 architecture.

PXE or BOOTP

Booting over the network must be supported by the system's BIOS or firmware, and a boot server must be available in the network. This task can also be handled by another openSUSE Leap system.

Hard Disk

openSUSE Leap installation can also be booted from the hard disk. To do this, copy the kernel (linux) and the installation system (initrd) from the directory /boot/architecture/ on the installation media to the hard disk and add an appropriate entry to the existing boot loader of a previous openSUSE Leap installation.

Tip
Tip: Booting from DVD on UEFI Machines

DVD1 can be used as a boot medium for machines equipped with UEFI (Unified Extensible Firmware Interface). Refer to your vendor's documentation for specific information. If booting fails, try to enable CSM (Compatibility Support Module) in your firmware.

2.2.1.1 The Boot Screen on Machines Equipped with Traditional BIOS

The boot screen displays several options for the installation procedure. Boot from Hard Disk boots the installed system and is selected by default, because the CD is often left in the drive. Select one of the other options with the arrow keys and press Enter to boot it. The relevant options are:

Installation

The normal installation mode. All modern hardware functions are enabled. In case the installation fails, see F5Kernel for boot options that disable potentially problematic functions.

Upgrade

Perform a system upgrade. For more information refer to Chapter 12, Upgrading the System and System Changes.

Rescue System

Starts a minimal Linux system without a graphical user interface. For more information, see Section 16.6.2, “Using the Rescue System”.

Check Installation Media

This option is only available when you install from media created from downloaded ISOs. In this case it is recommended to check the integrity of the installation medium. This option starts the installation system before automatically checking the media. In case the check was successful, the normal installation routine starts. If a corrupt media is detected, the installation routine aborts.

Warning
Warning: Failure of Media Check

If the media check fails, your medium is damaged. Do not continue the installation because installation may fail or you may lose your data. Replace the broken medium and restart the installation process.

Memory Test

Tests your system RAM using repeated read and write cycles. Terminate the test by rebooting. For more information, see Section 16.2.4, “Fails to Boot”.

The Boot Screen on Machines with a Traditional BIOS
Figure 2.1: The Boot Screen on Machines with a Traditional BIOS

Use the function keys indicated in the bar at the bottom of the screen to change the language, screen resolution, installation source or to add an additional driver from your hardware vendor:

F1Help

Get context-sensitive help for the active element of the boot screen. Use the arrow keys to navigate, Enter to follow a link, and Esc to leave the help screen.

F2Language

Select the display language and a corresponding keyboard layout for the installation. The default language is English (US).

F3Video Mode

Select various graphical display modes for the installation. By Default the video resolution is automatically determined using KMS (Kernel Mode Settings). If this setting does not work on your system, choose No KMS and, optionally, specify vga=ask on the boot command line to get prompted for the video resolution. Choose Text Mode if the graphical installation causes problems.

F4Source

Normally, the installation is performed from the inserted installation medium. Here, select other sources, like FTP or NFS servers. If the installation is deployed on a network with an SLP server, select an installation source available on the server with this option.

F5Kernel

If you encounter problems with the regular installation, this menu offers to disable a few potentially problematic functions. If your hardware does not support ACPI (advanced configuration and power interface) select No ACPI to install without ACPI support. No local APIC disables support for APIC (Advanced Programmable Interrupt Controllers) which may cause problems with some hardware. Safe Settings boots the system with the DMA mode (for CD/DVD-ROM drives) and power management functions disabled.

If you are not sure, try the following options first: Installation—ACPI Disabled or Installation—Safe Settings. Experts can also use the command line (Boot Options) to enter or change kernel parameters.

F6Driver

Press this key to notify the system that you have an optional driver update for openSUSE Leap. With File or URL, load drivers directly before the installation starts. If you select Yes, you are prompted to insert the update disk at the appropriate point in the installation process.

2.2.1.2 The Boot Screen on Machines Equipped with UEFI

UEFI (Unified Extensible Firmware Interface) is a new industry standard which replaces and extends the traditional BIOS. The latest UEFI implementations contain the Secure Boot extension, which prevents booting malicious code by only allowing signed boot loaders to be executed. See Book “Reference”, Chapter 14 “UEFI (Unified Extensible Firmware Interface)” for more information.

The boot manager GRUB 2, used to boot machines with a traditional BIOS, does not support UEFI, therefore GRUB 2 is replaced with ELILO. If Secure Boot is enabled, a GRUB 2 UEFI module is used via an ELILO compatibility layer. From an administrative and user perspective, both boot manager implementations behave the same and are called ELILO in the following.

Tip
Tip: UEFI and Secure Boot are Supported by Default

The installation routine of SUSE Linux Enterprise automatically detects if the machine is equipped with UEFI. All installation sources also support Secure Boot. If an EFI system partition already exists on dual boot machines (from a Microsoft Windows 8 installation, for example), it will automatically be detected and used. Partition tables will be written as GPT on UEFI systems.

Warning
Warning: Using Non-Inbox Drivers with Secure Boot

There is no support for adding non-inbox drivers (that is, drivers that do not come with SLE) during installation with Secure Boot enabled. The signing key used for SolidDriver/PLDP is not trusted by default.

To solve this problem, it is necessary to either add the needed keys to the firmware database via firmware/system management tools before the installation or to use a bootable ISO that will enroll the needed keys in the MOK list at first boot. For more information, see Book “Reference”, Chapter 14 “UEFI (Unified Extensible Firmware Interface)”, Section 14.1 “Secure Boot”.

The boot screen displays several options for the installation procedure. Change the selected option with the arrow keys and press Enter to boot it. The relevant options are:

Installation

The normal installation mode.

Upgrade

Perform a system upgrade.

Rescue System

Starts a minimal Linux system without a graphical user interface. For more information, see Section 16.6.2, “Using the Rescue System”.

Check Installation Media

This option is only available when you install from media created from downloaded ISOs. In this case it is recommended to check the integrity of the installation medium. This option starts the installation system before automatically checking the media. In case the check was successful, the normal installation routine starts. If a corrupt media is detected, the installation routine aborts.

The Boot Screen on Machines with UEFI
Figure 2.2: The Boot Screen on Machines with UEFI

ELILO on openSUSE Leap does not support a boot prompt or function keys for adding boot parameters. By default, the installation will be started with American English and the boot media as the installation source. A DHCP lookup will be performed to configure the network. To change these defaults or to add additional boot parameters you need to edit the respective boot entry. Highlight it using the arrow keys and press E. See the on-screen help for editing hints (note that only an English keyboard is available now). The Installation entry will look similar to the following:

setparams 'Installation'

    set gfxpayload=keep
    echo 'Loading kernel ...'
    linuxefi /boot/x86_64/loader/linux splash=slilent
    echo 'Loading initial ramdisk ...'
    initrdefi /boot/x86_64/loader/initrd

Add space-separated parameters to the end of the line starting with linuxefi. To boot the edited entry, press F10. If you access the machine via serial console, press Esc0. A complete list of parameters is available at http://en.opensuse.org/Linuxrc. The most important ones are:

Table 2.2: Installation Sources

CD/DVD (default)

install=cd:/

Hard disk

install=hd:/?device=sda/PATH_TO_ISO

SLP

install=slp:/

FTP

install=ftp://ftp.example.com/PATH_TO_ISO

HTTP

install=http://www.example.com/PATH_TO_ISO

NFS

install=nfs:/PATH_TO_ISO

SMB / CIFS

install=smb://PATH_TO_ISO

Table 2.3: Network Configuration

DHCP (default)

netsetup=dhcp

Prompt for Parameters

netsetup=hostip,netmask,gateway,nameserver

Host IP address

hostip=192.168.2.100

hostip=192.168.2.100/24

Netmask

netmask=255.255.255.0

Gateway

gateway=192.168.5.1

Name Server

nameserver=192.168.1.116

nameserver=192.168.1.116,192.168.1.118

Domain Search Path

domain=example.com

Table 2.4: Miscellaneous

Driver Updates: Prompt

dud=1

Driver Updates: URL

dud=ftp://ftp.example.com/PATH_TO_DRIVER

dud=http://www.example.com/PATH_TO_DRIVER

Installation Language

Language=LANGUAGE

Supported values for LANGUAGE are, among others, cs_CZ, de_DE, es_ES, fr_FR, ja_JP, pt_BR, pt_PT, ru_RU, zh_CN, and zh_TW.

Kernel: No ACPI

acpi=off

Kernel: No Local APIC

noapic

Video: Disable KMS

nomodeset

Video: Start Installer in Text Mode

Textmode=1

2.2.2 Boot Parameters for Advanced Setups

In case you want to configure access to a local SMT or supportconfig server for the installation, you can specify boot parameters that will be parsed by the installation routine to set up these services. The same is also true if you need IPv6 support during the installation.

2.2.2.1 Using IPv6 During the Installation

By default you can only assign IPv4 network addresses to your machine. To enable IPv6 during installation, enter one of the following parameters at the boot prompt:

  • ipv6=1 (accept IPv4 and IPv6)

  • ipv6only=1 (accept IPv6 only).

2.2.2.2 Using a Proxy During the Installation

In networks enforcing the usage of a proxy server for accessing remote Web sites, registration during installation is only possible when configuring a proxy server.

To use a proxy during the installation, press F4 on the boot screen and set the required parameters in the HTTP Proxy dialog. Alternatively provide the Kernel parameter proxy at the boot prompt:

  • proxy=http://USER:Password@proxy.example.com:PORT

Specifying USER and Password is optional—if the server allows anonymous access, the following data is sufficient: http://proxy.example.com:PORT.

2.2.2.3 Disabling the Import of SSH Host Keys and Users from a Previous Installation

If installing on a machine hosting a previous Linux installation, the SSH host keys from that installation will automatically be imported into the openSUSE Leap setup by default. It is also possible to import users from that installation in the Create New User dialog.

To disable these features, specify the ignore_features parameter at the boot prompt. Adding the (optional) ptoptions parameter ensures that the ignore_features parameter is only used for the installation and not appended to the Kernel command line in the installed system:

  • ignore_features=import_ssh_keys ptoptions=ignore_features (do not import SSH host keys)

  • ignore_features=import_users ptoptions=ignore_features (disable user import dialog)

  • ignore_features=import_ssh_keys,import_users ptoptions=ignore_features (disable user import dialog)

2.2.2.4 Enabling SELinux Support

Enabling SELinux upon installation start-up enables you to configure it after the installation has been finished without having to reboot. Use the following parameters:

  • security=selinux selinux=1

2.3 The Installation Workflow

The interactive installation of openSUSE Leap split into several steps is listed below.

After starting the installation, openSUSE Leap loads and configures a minimal Linux system to run the installation procedure. To view the boot messages and copyright notices during this process, press Esc. On completion of this process, the YaST installation program starts and displays the graphical installer.

Tip
Tip: Installation Without a Mouse

If the installer does not detect your mouse correctly, use →| for navigation, arrow keys to scroll, and Enter to confirm a selection. Various buttons or selection fields contain a letter with an underscore. Use AltLetter to select a button or a selection directly instead of navigating there with →|.

2.4 Language, Keyboard and License Agreement

Start the installation of openSUSE Leap by choosing your language. Changing the language will automatically preselect a corresponding keyboard layout. Override this proposal by selecting a different keyboard layout from the drop-down box. The language selected here is also used to assume a time zone for the system clock. This setting can be modified later in the installed system as described in Chapter 4, Changing Language and Country Settings with YaST.

Read the license agreement that is displayed beneath the language and keyboard selection thoroughly. Use License Translations to access translations. By proceeding with Next, you agree to the license agreement. Choose Abort to cancel the installation if you do not agree to the license terms.

Language, Keyboard and License Agreement
Figure 2.3: Language, Keyboard and License Agreement

2.5 Network Settings

After booting into the installation, the installation routine is set up. During this setup, an attempt to configure at least one network interface with DHCP is made. In case this attempt fails, the Network Settings dialog launches. Choose a network interface from the list and click Edit to change its settings. Use the tabs to configure DNS and routing. See Book “Reference”, Chapter 13 “Basic Networking”, Section 13.4 “Configuring a Network Connection with YaST” for more details.

Network Settings
Figure 2.4: Network Settings

2.6 Installation Options

The Installation Options step let's you decide whether to add additional software sources (repositories) during the installaion.

Installation Options
Figure 2.5: Installation Options

You have got two choices:

Add Online Repositories Before Installation

Adds the online software sources for openSUSE Leap from http://download.opensuse.org/distribution/leap/. It also adds the update repository for openSUSE Leap. This ensures that the system will be installed with the most current packages without having to apply the updates after installation. Activating this option is recommended. Later during the installation workflow, you will be able to specify which repositories to add.

Include Add-On Products from Separate Media

This option allows you to add additional software repositories to openSUSE Leap, that are not provided on http://download.opensuse.org/distribution/leap/. Such add-on products may include third-party products and drivers or additional software for your system. Later during the installation workflow, you will be able to specify which repositories to add.

Tip
Tip: Release Notes

From this point on, the Release Notes can be viewed from any screen during the installation process by selecting Release Notes.

2.7 Suggested Partitioning

Define a partition setup for openSUSE Leap in this step. The installer creates a proposal for one of the available disks containing a root partition formatted with Btrfs, a swap partition, and a home partition formatted with XFS. On hard disks smaller than 25 GB the proposal does not include a separate home partition. If one or more swap partitions have been detected on the available hard disks, these existing ones will be used (rather than proposing a new swap partition). You have several options to proceed:

Next

To accept the proposal without any changes, click Next to proceed with the installation workflow.

Edit Proposal Settings

To adjust the proposal choose Edit Proposal Settings. It lets you switch to an LVM-based proposal, adjust file systems for the proposed partitions and enlarge the swap partition, to enable suspend to disk. You can also enable Btrfs snapshots here.

Create Partition Setup

Use this option to move the proposal described above to a different disk. Select a specific disk from the list. If the chosen hard disk does not contain any partitions yet, the whole hard disk will be used for the proposal. Otherwise, you can choose which existing partition(s) to use. Edit Proposal Settings lets you fine-tune the proposal.

Expert Partitioner

To create a custom partition setup choose Expert Partitioner. The Expert Partitioner opens, displaying the current partition setup for all hard disks, including the proposal suggested by the installer. You can Add, Edit, Resize, or Delete partitions.

You can also set up Logical Volumes (LVM), configure software RAID and device mapping (DM), encrypt Partitions, mount NFS shares and manage tmpfs volumes with the Expert Partitioner. To fine-tune settings such as the subvolume and snapshot handling for each Btrfs partition, choose Btrfs. For more information about custom partitioning and configuring advanced features, refer to Book “Reference”, Chapter 5 “Advanced Disk Setup”, Section 5.1 “Using the YaST Partitioner”.

Important
Important: Btrfs on an Encrypted Root Partition

The default partitioning setup suggests the root partition as Btrfs with /boot being a directory. If you need to have the root partition encrypted in this setup, make sure to use the GPT partition table type instead of the default MSDOS type. Otherwise the GRUB2 boot loader may not have enough space for the second stage loader.

Warning
Warning: Custom Partitioning on UEFI machines

A UEFI machine requires an EFI system partition that must be mounted to /boot/efi. This partition must be formatted with the FAT file system.

If an EFI system partition is already present on your system (for example from a previous Windows installation) use it by mounting it to /boot/efi without formatting it.

Warning
Warning: Custom Partitioning and Snapper

openSUSE Leap can be configured to support snapshots which provide the ability to do rollbacks of system changes. openSUSE Leap uses Snapper in conjunction with Btrfs for this feature. Btrfs needs to be set up with snapshots enabled for the root partition. Refer to Book “Reference”, Chapter 3 “System Recovery and Snapshot Management with Snapper” for details on Snapper.

Being able to create system snapshots that enable rollbacks requires most of the system directories to be mounted on a single partition. Refer to Book “Reference”, Chapter 3 “System Recovery and Snapshot Management with Snapper”, Section 3.1 “Default Setup” for more information. This also includes /usr and /var. Only directories that are excluded from snapshots (see Book “Reference”, Chapter 3 “System Recovery and Snapshot Management with Snapper”, Section 3.1.2 “Directories That Are Excluded from Snapshots” for a list) may reside on separate partitions. Among others, this list includes /usr/local, /var/log, and /tmp.

If you do not plan use Snapper for system rollbacks, the partitioning restrictions mentioned above do not apply.

Note
Note: Supported Software RAID Volumes

Installing to and booting from existing software RAID volumes is supported for Disk Data Format (DDF) volumes and Intel Matrix Storage Manager (IMSM) volumes. IMSM is also known by the following names:

  • Intel Rapid Storage Technology

  • Intel Matrix Storage Technology

  • Intel Application Accelerator / Intel Application Accelerator RAID Edition

Important
Important: Handling of Windows Partitions in Proposals

In case the disk selected for the suggested partitioning proposal contains a large Windows FAT or NTFS partition, it will automatically be resized to make room for the openSUSE Leap installation. To avoid data loss it is strongly recommended to

  • make sure the partition is not fragmented (run a defragmentation program from Windows prior to the openSUSE Leap installation)

  • double-check the suggested size for the Windows partition is big enough

  • back up your data prior to the openSUSE Leap installation

To adjust the proposed size of the Windows partition, use the Expert Partitioner.

Partitioning
Figure 2.6: Partitioning

2.8 Clock and Time Zone

In this dialog, select your region and time zone. Both are preselected according to the installation language. To change the preselected values, either use the map or the drop-down boxes for Region and Time Zone. When using the map, point the cursor at the rough direction of your region and left-click to zoom. Now choose your country or region by left-clicking. Right-click to return to the world map.

To set up the clock, choose whether the Hardware Clock is Set to UTC. If you run another operating system on your machine, such as Microsoft Windows, it is likely your system uses local time instead. If you only run Linux on your machine, set the hardware clock to UTC and have the switch from standard time to daylight saving time performed automatically.

Important
Important: Set the Hardware Clock to UTC

The switch from standard time to daylight saving time (and vice versa) can only be performed automatically when the hardware clock (CMOS clock) is set to UTC. This also applies if you use automatic time synchronization with NTP, because automatic synchronization will only be performed if the time difference between the hardware and system clock is less than 15 minutes.

Since a wrong system time can cause severe problems (missed backups, dropped mail messages, mount failures on remote file systems, etc.) it is strongly recommended to always set the hardware clock to UTC.

Clock and Time Zone
Figure 2.7: Clock and Time Zone

POWER, x86_64 If a network is already configured, you can configure time synchronization with an NTP server. Click Other Settings to either alter the NTP settings or to Manually set the time. See Book “Reference”, Chapter 18 “Time Synchronization with NTP” for more information on configuring the NTP service. When finished, click Accept to continue the installation.

POWER, x86_64 If running without NTP configured, consider setting SYSTOHC=no (sysconfig variable) to avoid saving unsynchronized time into the hardware clock.

2.9 List Of Online Repositories

If you have selected Add Online Repositories Before Installation earlier during the installation, the List of Online Repositories screen lets you choose which official openSUSE Leap online repositories to add. The following repositories are available:

List Of Online Repositories
Figure 2.8: List Of Online Repositories
Main Repository (OSS)

Contains all open source software packages openSUSE Leap consists of. These are the package versions with whoch openSUSE Leap was released. This repository is activated by default. Deactivating it is not recommended.

Main Repository (NON-OSS)

Contains additional software packages with a proprietary license (non- open source software). These packages are not included on the DVD version of openSUSE Leap. This repository is activated by default. Deactivate it, if you do not want to install non- open source software.

Update Repository (OSS)

Contains updates for packages from the Main Repository (OSS). This repository is activated by default and should never be deactivated.

Update Repository (NON-OSS)

Contains updates for packages from the Main Repository (NON-OSS). This repository is activated by default and should only be deactivated, if you have also deactivated the Main Repository (NON-OSS).

Main Repository (Sources)

Contains sources and spec files for all packages from the Main Repository (OSS). This repository is deactivated by default.

Main Repository (DEBUG)

Contains debug packages for packages from the Main Repository. They are useful to generate stack traces containing detailed information about the crash. This repository is deactivated by default. Useful for experts only.

Update Repository (DEBUG)

Contains debug packages for packages from the Update Repository. They are useful to generate stack traces containing detailed information about the crash. This repository is deactivated by default. Useful for experts only.

Untested Updates

Updates that have not yet passed the quality assurance tests. This repository is deactivated by default. Intended for beta testers.

Confirm your settings with Next. Depending on your choice of repositories, you may have to confirm license agreements.

2.10 Add-On Product

If you have selected Include Add-On Products from Separate Media earlier during the installation, the Add-On Product step lets you add addtitional repositories. An add-on product can include extensions, third-party products and drivers or additional software for your system such as support for additional languages.

Add-On Product
Figure 2.9: Add-On Product
Note
Note: The Add-On Product Installation Screen

In case you have also configured the product online repositories, you will not see the screen depicted in the screensjot above, but rather a table showing the products online repositories that already have been added. Choose Add to advance to the Add-On Product screen.

Activate I would like to install an additional Add-On Product and specify the product source. Locally available sources include removable media, a local directory, an additional hard disk or a mount iso image. Network sources include repositories available via FTP, HTTP, NFS or CIFS. If your network distributes repositories via an SLP server, choose Scan using SLP. Community Repositories contains preconfigured links to the most popular repositories on the openSUSE Build Service (https://build.opensuse.org/).

Avtivatek Download Repository Description Files to download the files describing the repository now. If unchecked, they will be downloaded once the installation starts. Proceed with Next and insert a removable media if required. Depending on the product's content it may be necessary to accept additional license agreements.

It is also possible to configure add-on products later. Using add-on products on the installed system is described in Chapter 10, Installing Add-On Products.

2.11 Desktop Selection

In openSUSE Leap, you can choose from various desktops. The major ones, KDE and GNOME, are powerful graphical desktop environments similar to Windows.

If you prefer a different desktop, choose Other for more options. The XFCE Desktop and the LXDE Desktop are fast and lightweight desktop environments suitable for modest hardware. With Minimal X Window, install a graphical window manager that allows for running stand-alone X applications and console windows but does not provide the usual integrated desktop functionality. In Minimal Server Selection (Text Mode), only console terminals are available.

Desktop Selection
Figure 2.10: Desktop Selection

2.12 Create New User

Create a local user in this step. In case you do not want to configure any local users, for example when setting up a client on a network with centralized user authentication, skip this step by choosing Next and confirming the warning. Network user authentication can be configured at any time later in the installed system, refer to Chapter 3, Managing Users with YaST for instructions.

After entering the first name and last name, either accept the proposal or specify a new User name that will be used to log in. Only use lowercase letters (a-z), digits (0-9) and the characters . (dot), - (hyphen) and _ (underscore). Special characters, umlauts and accented characters are not allowed.

Finally, enter a password for the user. Re-enter it for confirmation (to ensure that you did not type something else by mistake). To provide effective security, a password should be at least six characters long and consist of uppercase and lowercase letters, digits and special characters (7-bit ASCII). Umlauts or accented characters are not allowed. Passwords you enter are checked for weakness. When entering a password that is easy to guess (such as a dictionary word or a name) you will see a warning. It is a good security practice to use strong passwords.

Important
Important: User Name and Password

Remember both your user name and the password because they are needed each time you log in to the system.

Create New User
Figure 2.11: Create New User

Three additional options are available:

Use this Password for System Administrator

If checked, the same password you have entered for the user will be used for the system administrator root. This option is suitable for stand-alone workstations or machines in a home network that are administrated by a single user. When not checked, you are prompted for a system administrator password in the next step of the installation workflow (see Section 2.13, “Password for the System Administrator root).

Receive System Mail

Checking this box sends messages created by the system services to the user. These are usually only sent to root, the system administrator. This option is useful for the most frequently used account, because it is highly recommended to log in as root only in special cases.

The mails sent by system services are stored in the local mailbox /var/spool/mail/username, where username is the login name of the selected user. To read e-mails after installation, you can use any e-mail client, for example KMail or Evolution.

Automatic Login

This option automatically logs the current user in to the system when it starts. This is mainly useful if the computer is operated by only one user.

Warning
Warning: Automatic Login

With the automatic login enabled, the system boots straight into your desktop with no authentication. If you store sensitive data on your system, you should not enable this option if the computer can also be accessed by others.

2.12.1 Expert Settings

Click Change in the Create User dialog to import users from a previous installation (if present). Also change the password encryption type in this dialog.

The default authentication method is Local (/etc/passwd). If a former version of openSUSE Leap or another system using /etc/passwd is detected, you may import local users. To do so, check Read User Data from a Previous Installation and click Choose. In the next dialog, select the users to import and finish with OK.

By default the passwords are encrypted with the SHA-512 hash function. Changing this method is not recommended unless needed for compatibility reasons.

2.13 Password for the System Administrator root

If you have not chosen Use this Password for System Administrator in the previous step, you will be prompted to enter a password for the System Administrator root. Otherwise this configuration step is skipped.

root is the name of the superuser, or the administrator of the system. Unlike regular users (who may or may not have permission to access certain areas or execute certain commands on the system), root has unlimited access to change the system configuration, install programs, and set up new hardware. If users forget their passwords or have other problems with the system, root can help. The root account should only be used for system administration, maintenance, and repair. Logging in as root for daily work is rather risky: a single mistake could lead to irretrievable loss of system files.

For verification purposes, the password for root must be entered twice. Do not forget the root password. After having been entered, this password cannot be retrieved.

Password for the System Administrator root
Figure 2.12: Password for the System Administrator root
Tip
Tip: Passwords and Keyboard Layout

It is recommended to only use characters that are available on an English keyboard. In case of a system error or when you need to start your system in rescue mode a localized keyboard might not be available.

The root password can be changed any time later in the installed system. To do so run YaST and start Security and Users › User and Group Management.

Important
Important: The root User

The user root has all the permissions needed to make changes to the system. To carry out such tasks, the root password is required. You cannot carry out any administrative tasks without this password.

2.14 Installation Settings

On the last step before the real installation takes place, you can alter installation settings suggested by the installer. To modify the suggestions, click the respective headline. After having made changes to a particular setting, you are always returned to the Installation Settings window, which is updated accordingly.

The Export Configuration option lets you save the current configuration to an XML file which can be used by AutoYaST for the automated installation of other machines.

Installation Settings
Figure 2.13: Installation Settings

2.14.1 Software

openSUSE Leap contains several software patterns for various application purposes. Click Software to open the Software Selection and System Tasks screen where you can modify the pattern selection according to your needs. Select a pattern from the list and see a description in the right-hand part of the window. Each pattern contains several software packages needed for specific functions (for example Multimedia or Office software). For a more detailed selection based on software packages to install, select Details to switch to the YaST Software Manager.

You can also install additional software packages or remove software packages from your system at any later time with the YaST Software Manager. For more information, refer to Chapter 9, Installing or Removing Software.

Software Selection and System Tasks
Figure 2.14: Software Selection and System Tasks
Tip
Tip: Adding Secondary Languages

The language you selected with the first step of the installation will be used as the primary (default) language for the system. You can add secondary languages from within the Software dialog by choosing Details › View › Languages.

2.14.2 Booting

The installer proposes a boot configuration for your system. Other operating systems found on your computer, such as Microsoft Windows or other Linux installations, will automatically be detected and added to the boot loader. However, openSUSE Leap will be booted by default. Normally, you can leave these settings unchanged. If you need a custom setup, modify the proposal according to your needs. For information, see Book “Reference”, Chapter 12 “The Boot Loader GRUB 2”, Section 12.3 “Configuring the Boot Loader with YaST”.

Important
Important: Software RAID 1

Booting a configuration where /boot resides on a software RAID 1 device is supported, but it requires to install the boot loader into the MBR (Boot Loader Location › Boot from Master Boot Record). Having /boot on software RAID devices with a level other than RAID 1 is not supported.

2.14.3 Firewall and SSH

By default SuSEFirewall2 is enabled on all configured network interfaces. To globally disable the firewall for this computer, click Disable (not recommended).

Note
Note: Firewall Settings

If the firewall is activated, all interfaces are configured to be in the External Zone, where all ports are closed by default, ensuring maximum security. The only port you can open during the installation is port 22 (SSH), to allow remote access. All other services requiring network access (such as FTP, Samba, Web server, etc.) will only work after having adjusted the firewall settings. Refer to Book “Security Guide”, Chapter 15 “Masquerading and Firewalls” for more information.

To enable remote access via the secure shell (SSH), make sure the SSH service is enabled and the SSH port is open.

Tip
Tip: Existing SSH Host Keys

If you install openSUSE Leap on a machine with one or more existing Linux installations, the installation routine automatically imports the SSH host key with the most recent access time from an existing installation.

In case you are performing a remote administration over VNC, you can also configure whether the machine should be accessible via VNC even after the installation. Note that enabling VNC also requires you to set the Default systemd Target to graphical.

2.14.4 Default systemd Target

openSUSE Leap can boot into two different targets (formerly known as runlevels). The graphical target starts a display manager, whereas the multi-user target starts the command line interface.

The default target is graphical. In case you have not installed the X Window System patterns, you need to change it to multi-user. If the system should be accessible via VNC, you need to choose graphical.

2.14.5 System

This screen lists all the hardware information the installer could obtain about your computer. When opened for the first time, the hardware detection is started. Depending on your system, this may take some time. Select any item in the list and click Details to see detailed information about the selected item. Use Save to File to save a detailed list to either the local file system or a removable device.

Advanced users can also change the PCI ID Setup and Kernel Settings by choosing Kernel Settings. A screen with two tabs opens:

PCI ID Setup

Each kernel driver contains a list of device IDs of all devices it supports. If a new device is not in any driver's database, the device is treated as unsupported, even if it can be used with an existing driver. You can add PCI IDs to a device driver here. Only advanced users should attempt to do so.

To add an ID, click Add and select whether to Manually enter the data, or whether to choose from a list. Enter the required data. The SysFS Dir is the directory name from /sys/bus/pci/drivers—if empty, the driver name is used as the directory name. Existing entries can be managed with Edit and Delete.

Kernel Settings

Change the Global I/O Scheduler here. If Not Configured is chosen, the default setting for the respective architecture will be used. This setting can also be changed at any time later from the installed system. Refer to Book “System Analysis and Tuning Guide”, Chapter 12 “Tuning I/O Performance” for details on I/O tuning.

Also activate the Enable SysRq Keys here. These keys will let you issue basic commands (such as rebooting the system or writing kernel dumps) in case the system crashes. Enabling these keys is recommended when doing kernel development. Refer to http://www.kernel.org/doc/Documentation/sysrq.txt for details.

2.15 Performing the Installation

After configuring all installation settings, click Install in the Installation Settings window to start the installation. Some software may require a license confirmation. If your software selection includes such software, license confirmation dialogs are displayed. Click Accept to install the software package. When not agreeing to the license, click I Disagree and the software package will not be installed. In the dialog that follows, confirm with Install again.

The installation usually takes between 15 and 30 minutes, depending on the system performance and the selected software scope. After having prepared the hard disk and having saved and restored the user settings, the software installation starts. During this procedure a slide show introduces the features of openSUSE Leap. Choose Details to switch to the installation log or Release Notes to read important up-to-date information that was not available when the manuals were printed.

After the software installation has completed, the system reboots into the new installation where you can log in. To customize the system configuration or to install additional software packages, start YaST.

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