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System Analysis and Tuning Guide


This guide supports administrators in problem detection, resolution and optimization.

Publication Date: August 02, 2023
Available documentation
Improving the documentation
Documentation conventions
I Basics
1 General notes on system tuning
1.1 Be sure what problem to solve
1.2 Rule out common problems
1.3 Finding the bottleneck
1.4 Step-by-step tuning
II System monitoring
2 System monitoring utilities
2.1 Multi-purpose tools
2.2 System information
2.3 Processes
2.4 Memory
2.5 Networking
2.6 The /proc file system
2.7 Hardware information
2.8 Files and file systems
2.9 User information
2.10 Time and date
2.11 Graph your data: RRDtool
3 System log files
3.1 System log files in /var/log/
3.2 Viewing and parsing log files
3.3 Managing log files with logrotate
3.4 Monitoring log files with logwatch
3.5 Configuring mail forwarding for root
3.6 Forwarding log messages to a central syslog server
3.7 Using logger to make system log entries
III Kernel monitoring
4 SystemTap—filtering and analyzing system data
4.1 Conceptual overview
4.2 Installation and setup
4.3 Script syntax
4.4 Example script
4.5 User space probing
4.6 More information
5 Kernel probes
5.1 Supported architectures
5.2 Types of kernel probes
5.3 Kprobes API
5.4 debugfs Interface
5.5 More information
6 Hardware-based performance monitoring with Perf
6.1 Hardware-based monitoring
6.2 Sampling and counting
6.3 Installing Perf
6.4 Perf subcommands
6.5 Counting particular types of event
6.6 Recording events specific to particular commands
6.7 More information
7 OProfile—system-wide profiler
7.1 Conceptual overview
7.2 Installation and requirements
7.3 Available OProfile utilities
7.4 Using OProfile
7.5 Generating reports
7.6 More information
IV Resource management
8 General system resource management
8.1 Planning the installation
8.2 Disabling unnecessary services
8.3 File systems and disk access
9 Kernel control groups
9.1 Overview
9.2 Resource accounting
9.3 Setting resource limits
9.4 Preventing fork bombs with TasksMax
9.5 I/O control with cgroups
9.6 More information
10 Automatic Non-Uniform Memory Access (NUMA) balancing
10.1 Implementation
10.2 Configuration
10.3 Monitoring
10.4 Impact
11 Power management
11.1 Power management at CPU Level
11.2 In-kernel governors
11.3 The cpupower tools
11.4 Special tuning options
11.5 Troubleshooting
11.6 More information
11.7 Monitoring power consumption with powerTOP
V Kernel tuning
12 Tuning I/O performance
12.1 Switching I/O scheduling
12.2 Available I/O elevators with blk-mq I/O path
12.3 I/O barrier tuning
13 Tuning the task scheduler
13.1 Introduction
13.2 Process classification
13.3 Completely Fair Scheduler
13.4 More information
14 Tuning the memory management subsystem
14.1 Memory usage
14.2 Reducing memory usage
14.3 Virtual memory manager (VM) tunable parameters
14.4 Monitoring VM behavior
15 Tuning the network
15.1 Configurable kernel socket buffers
15.2 Detecting network bottlenecks and analyzing network traffic
15.3 Netfilter
15.4 Improving the network performance with receive packet steering (RPS)
VI Handling system dumps
16 Tracing tools
16.1 Tracing system calls with strace
16.2 Tracing library calls with ltrace
16.3 Debugging and profiling with Valgrind
16.4 More information
17 Kexec and Kdump
17.1 Introduction
17.2 Required packages
17.3 Kexec internals
17.4 Calculating crashkernel allocation size
17.5 Basic Kexec usage
17.6 How to configure Kexec for routine reboots
17.7 Basic Kdump configuration
17.8 Analyzing the crash dump
17.9 Advanced Kdump configuration
17.10 More information
18 Using systemd-coredump to debug application crashes
18.1 Use and configuration
VII Synchronized clocks with Precision Time Protocol
19 Precision Time Protocol
19.1 Introduction to PTP
19.2 Using PTP
19.3 Synchronizing the clocks with phc2sys
19.4 Examples of configurations
19.5 PTP and NTP
A GNU licenses
A.1 GNU Free Documentation License

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